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Hot Topics of the Day are picked by experts to capture the latest information and publications on public health genomics and precision health for various diseases and health topics. Sources include published scientific literature, reviews, blogs and popular press articles.

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Archived Hot Topics of the Day By Date

Analysis of Epigenetic Age Acceleration and Healthy Longevity Among Older US Women
P Jain et al, JAMA Network Open, July 27, 2022

This cohort study was a secondary analysis of 3 Women’s Health Initiative ancillary studies among 1813 women eligible to survive to age 90 years by end of study period. The study found that increased epigenetic age acceleration as measured by 4 epigenetic clocks was associated with lower odds of survival to age 90 years with intact mobility; results were similar when including intact cognitive functioning. Meaning These findings suggest that epigenetic age acceleration may be a useful biomarker to estimate functional and cognitive aging among older women.

Association of Everyday Discrimination With Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the All of Us Research Program
YH Lee et al, JAMA Psychiatry, July 27, 2022

In this cohort study, everyday discrimination was associated with significantly increased odds of moderate to severe depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation between May and July 2020. Notably, this association was stronger among participants self-identifying as Hispanic or Latino or non-Hispanic Asian when the main reason for discrimination was race, ancestry, or national origins.

Effectiveness Associated With Vaccination After COVID-19 Recovery in Preventing Reinfection
N Lewis et al, JAMA Network Open, July 278, 2022

In this cohort study of more than 95?000 Rhode Island residents from March 2020 to December 2021, including residents and employees of long-term congregate care (LTCC) facilities, completion of the primary vaccination series after recovery from COVID-19 was associated with 49% protection from reinfection among LTCC residents, 47% protection among LTCC employees, and 62% protection in the general population during periods when wild type, Alpha, and Delta strains of SARS-CoV-2 were predominant.

Monkey Pox Virus (MPXV): Phylogenomics, Host-Pathogen Interactome, and Mutational Cascade
R Kumar et al, BIORXIV, July 25, 2022

We have thus analysed the genome sequences of reported isolates of Monkeypox in the present study through phylogenomics. Host-pathogen interactions, mutation prevalence and evolutionary dynamics of this virus were investigated for all the documented isolates. Phylogenetic exploration revealed the clustering of strain Israel 2018 (MN 648051.1) from Clade I with the four isolates reported from the recent outbreak. An in-depth scrutiny of the host-pathogen interactome identified protein E3, serine protease inhibitor-2 (SPI-2), protein K7, and cytokine response-modifying protein B (CrmB) as the major regulatory hubs

Tecovirimat is highly efficient on the Monkeypox virus lineage responsible for the international 2022 outbreak
GF Feyrat et a, BIORIV, July 20, 2022

The ongoing monkeypox virus (MPXV) outbreak is the largest ever recorded outside of Africa. Genomic analysis revealed a divergent phylogenetic lineage within clade 3, and atypical clinical presentations have been noted. We report the sequencing and isolation of the virus from the first clinical case diagnosed in France in May 2022. We tested the in vitro effect of tecovirimat (ST-246), a FDA approved drug, against this novel strain, showing efficacy at the nanomolar range. In comparison, cidofovir showed activity at micromolar concentrations.

The WHO Declaration of Monkeypox as a Global Public Health Emergency
JB Nuzzo et al, JAMA, July 27, 2022

Monkeypox declared a global emergency: will it help contain the outbreak? The window for containment is rapidly closing, researchers say.
M Koslow, Nature, July 25, 2022

Machine learning for real-time aggregated prediction of hospital admission for emergency patients
Z King et al, NPJ Digital Medicine, July 27, 2022

Machine learning for hospital operations is under-studied. We present a prediction pipeline that uses live electronic health-records for patients in a UK teaching hospital’s emergency department (ED) to generate short-term, probabilistic forecasts of emergency admissions. A set of XGBoost classifiers applied to 109,465 ED visits yielded AUROCs from 0.82 to 0.90 depending on elapsed visit-time at the point of prediction.

Rare autosomal trisomies detected by non-invasive prenatal testing: an overview of current knowledge
L Lanoo et al, EJHG, July 27, 2022

Non-invasive prenatal testing has been introduced for the detection of Trisomy 13, 18, and 21. Using genome-wide screening also other “rare” autosomal trisomies (RATs) can be detected with a frequency about half the frequency of the common trisomies in the large population-based studies. Large prospective studies and clear clinical guidelines are lacking to provide adequate counseling and management to those who are confronted with a RAT as a healthcare professional or patient.

All of Us Seeks Input on Broadening Participants’ Electronic Health Record Data
All of US Research Program, July 26, 2022 Brand

Request for Information looks for guidance on how to acquire and integrate data from health information networks and health information exchanges. “Health care in the United States is highly fragmented, so patient data is often siloed in different systems, making it difficult to access. Lack of interoperability and evolving data standards contribute to additional gaps in our EHR dataset.”

Disclaimer: Articles listed in Hot Topics of the Day are selected by the CDC Office of Genomics and Precision Public Health to provide current awareness of the scientific literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.