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Last Posted: Dec 09, 2022
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What's my age again?
Marioni Riccardo E et al. Nature reviews. Genetics 2022 12

Age is a major (and sometimes the major) risk factor for many diseases. We all age at the same chronological rate but there is huge variation in what diseases we get and when we get them. Two people of the same chronological age can have very different risk profiles but is there a way to quantify our rate of biological ageing, and do different organs and tissues age at different rates?

DNA Methylation Implicated in Human Obesity and Diabetes
ME Tucker, Medscape, November 2022

Previous attempts to identify causal associations between DNA methylation and both obesity and type 2 diabetes have been hindered by challenges in collecting and isolating cells from human tissue. Recent data suggest that manipulation of DNA methylation enzymes in adipocytes can induce or prevent obesity and type 2 diabetes through cellular effects on energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity.

Gene-environment interactions in Alzheimer disease: the emerging role of epigenetics.
Migliore Lucia et al. Nature reviews. Neurology 2022 9 (11) 643-660

With the exception of a few monogenic forms, Alzheimer disease (AD) has a complex aetiology that is likely to involve multiple susceptibility genes and environmental factors. The role of environmental factors is difficult to determine and, until a few years ago, the molecular mechanisms underlying gene–environment (G?×?E) interactions in AD were largely unknown. Here, we review evidence that has emerged over the past two decades to explain how environmental factors, such as diet, lifestyle, alcohol, smoking and pollutants, might interact with the human genome. In particular, we discuss how various environmental AD risk factors can induce epigenetic modifications of key AD-related genes and pathways.

From Polygenic Risk Scores to Methylation Risk Scores: What are the Clinical Applications?
E Drzymala et al, CDC Blog Post, October 7, 2022 Brand

Better understanding of a person’s risk for disease is important for prevention and treatment. Considering a person’s unique set of environmental and genetic risk factors is crucial for this understanding. Methylation risk scores (MRS) are in a unique position to combine these genetic and environmental factors over time. More research will be needed to assess the validity and utility of MRS for risk prediction alongside genetic and environmental models.

Disclaimer: Articles listed in the Public Health Genomics and Precision Health Knowledge Base are selected by the CDC Office of Public Health Genomics to provide current awareness of the literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the update, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.