Posted: Dec 09, 2022
What's my age again?
Marioni Riccardo E et al. Nature reviews. Genetics 2022 12
Age is a major (and sometimes the major) risk factor for many diseases. We all age at the same chronological rate but there is huge variation in what diseases we get and when we get them. Two people of the same chronological age can have very different risk profiles but is there a way to quantify our rate of biological ageing, and do different organs and tissues age at different rates?
DNA Methylation Implicated in Human Obesity and Diabetes
ME Tucker, Medscape, November 2022
Previous attempts to identify causal associations between DNA methylation and both obesity and type 2 diabetes have been hindered by challenges in collecting and isolating cells from human tissue. Recent data suggest that manipulation of DNA methylation enzymes in adipocytes can induce or prevent obesity and type 2 diabetes through cellular effects on energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity.
Gene-environment interactions in Alzheimer disease: the emerging role of epigenetics.
Migliore Lucia et al. Nature reviews. Neurology 2022 9 (11) 643-660
With the exception of a few monogenic forms, Alzheimer disease (AD) has a complex aetiology that is likely to involve multiple susceptibility genes and environmental factors. The role of environmental factors is difficult to determine and, until a few years ago, the molecular mechanisms underlying gene–environment (G?×?E) interactions in AD were largely unknown. Here, we review evidence that has emerged over the past two decades to explain how environmental factors, such as diet, lifestyle, alcohol, smoking and pollutants, might interact with the human genome. In particular, we discuss how various environmental AD risk factors can induce epigenetic modifications of key AD-related genes and pathways.
From Polygenic Risk Scores to Methylation Risk Scores: What are the Clinical Applications?
E Drzymala et al, CDC Blog Post, October 7, 2022
Better understanding of a person’s risk for disease is important for prevention and treatment. Considering a person’s unique set of environmental and genetic risk factors is crucial for this understanding. Methylation risk scores (MRS) are in a unique position to combine these genetic and environmental factors over time. More research will be needed to assess the validity and utility of MRS for risk prediction alongside genetic and environmental models.