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Cancer PHGKB

Specific PHGKB|Cancer|Public Health Genomics and Precision Health Knowledge Base (PHGKB)
Last Posted: Apr 15, 2024
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Clinical Application of Different Liquid Biopsy Components in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
J Xu et al, JPM, April 15, 2024 (Posted Apr 15, 2024 2PM)

From the abstract: "Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of primary liver cancer, usually occurring in the background of chronic liver disease. HCC lethality rate is in the third highest place in the world. Patients with HCC have concealed early symptoms and possess a high-level of heterogeneity. Once diagnosed, most of the tumors are in advanced stages and have a poor prognosis. The sensitivity and specificity of existing detection modalities and protocols are suboptimal. HCC calls for more sophisticated and individualized therapeutic regimens. Liquid biopsy is non-invasive, repeatable, unaffected by location, and can be monitored dynamically. It has emerged as a useable aid in achieving precision malignant tumor treatment."

Nucleic acid-based drugs for patients with solid tumours.
Sebastian G Huayamares et al. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2024 4 (Posted Apr 10, 2024 8AM)

From the abstract: "The treatment of patients with advanced-stage solid tumours typically involves a multimodality approach (including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy and/or immunotherapy), which is often ultimately ineffective. Nucleic acid-based drugs, either as monotherapies or in combination with standard-of-care therapies, are rapidly emerging as novel treatments capable of generating responses in otherwise refractory tumours. These therapies include those using viral vectors (also referred to as gene therapies), several of which have now been approved by regulatory agencies, and nanoparticles containing mRNAs and a range of other nucleotides. "

Integration of pathologic characteristics, genetic risk and lifestyle exposure for colorectal cancer survival assessment
J Xin et al, Nature Comm, April 8, 2024 (Posted Apr 09, 2024 8AM)

From the abstract: "The development of an effective survival prediction tool is key for reducing colorectal cancer mortality. Here, we apply a three-stage study to devise a polygenic prognostic score (PPS) for stratifying colorectal cancer overall survival. Leveraging two cohorts of 3703 patients, we first perform a genome-wide survival association analysis to develop eight candidate PPSs. Further using an independent cohort with 470 patients, we identify the 287 variants-derived PPS (i.e., PPS287) achieving an optimal prediction performance [hazard ratio (HR) per SD?=?1.99, P?=?1.76?×?10-8], accompanied by additional tests in two external cohorts, with HRs per SD of 1.90 (P?=?3.21?×?10-14; 543 patients) and 1.80 (P?=?1.11?×?10-9; 713 patients). Notably, the detrimental impact of pathologic characteristics and genetic risk could be attenuated by a healthy lifestyle, yielding a 7.62% improvement in the 5-year overall survival rate. "

Clinical Value of Molecular Targets and FDA-Approved Genome-Targeted Cancer Therapies.
Ariadna Tibau et al. JAMA Oncol 2024 4 (Posted Apr 05, 2024 9AM)

From the abstract: "What is the validity of the molecular targets and clinical benefits of US Food and Drug Administration–approved genome-targeted cancer drugs based on the results of pivotal clinical trials? In this cohort study, 50 molecular-targeted drugs covering 84 indications were identified. Using an international grading system to evaluate molecular targetability strength (European Society for Medical Oncology Scale for Clinical Actionability of Molecular Targets) and a scale to assess clinical benefit in genome-targeted cancer therapies (European Society for Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale), 24 indications (29%) supported high-benefit genomic-based cancer treatments. The therapeutic benefit grading frameworks used in this study can help stakeholders identify therapies with the greatest clinical potential. "

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