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Cancer PHGKB

Specific PHGKB|Cancer|PHGKB
Last Posted: Dec 01, 2022
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Tumor aneuploidy predicts survival following immunotherapy across multiple cancers.
Spurr Liam F et al. Nature genetics 2022 11

Tumor mutational burden (TMB) has emerged as a promising biomarker of immunotherapy response across multiple cancer types; however, clinical outcomes among patients with low TMB tumors are heterogeneous. Herein, we demonstrate that tumor aneuploidy provides independent prognostic value among patients with lower TMB (<80th percentile) tumors treated with immunotherapy. A higher aneuploidy score is associated with poor prognosis following immunotherapy among tumors with low TMB, but not those with high TMB.

Will Organoids Fill the Gap towards Functional Precision Medicine?
F Papacio et al, J Per Med, November 21, 2022

Precision medicine approaches for solid tumors are mainly based on genomics. Its employment in clinical trials has led to somewhat underwhelming results, except for single responses. Several factors can influence the response, such as gene and protein expression, the coexistence of different genomic alterations or post-transcriptional/translational modifications, the impact of tumor microenvironment. Recently, the introduction of patient-derived organoids (PDOs) (stable primary cultures derived directly from the patient) showed the possibility of using them to predict in vitro the response that should be observed in the patient. This could represent a way to test the effectiveness of a precision medicine approach before administering it to the patient, maximizing clinical benefit.

mRNA revolutionized the race for a Covid-19 vaccine. Could cancer be next?
J Wosen, Stat News, November 21, 2022

The unprecedented success of messenger RNA vaccines against the coronavirus is raising hopes that the technology could lead to new and better vaccines against a much older public health scourge: cancer. In some ways, the challenge is similar: The aim of any vaccine is to focus the immune system’s response against a particular molecule, or antigen, whether that’s a piece of a virus or a protein that coats tumor cells. There’s one important difference, however: Cancer vaccines are generally treatments rather than preventative measures.

Combining PARP Inhibitor With Immunotherapy-Does the Promise of Preclinical Data Translate to Clinic?
Thawani Rajat et al. JAMA oncology 2022 11

Results from two recent trials warrant further investigation into the underlying biology that resulted in lack of clinical benefit of the study drug combination in the majority of patients with non–BRCA-associated cancers, and apparent lack of improved clinical benefit compared with single agent alone in BRCA-associated cancers.

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