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Hot Topics of the Day are picked by experts to capture the latest information and publications on public health genomics and precision health for various diseases and health topics. Sources include published scientific literature, reviews, blogs and popular press articles.

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74 hot topic(s) found with the query "Coronavirus"

Rogue Antibodies and Gene Mutations Explain Some Cases of Severe COVID-19
F Collins, NIH Director's Blog, October 6, 2020 Brand (Posted: Oct-06-2020 0PM)

A perplexing issue with COVID-19 is that it affects people so differently. Researchers are trying to explain why some folks bounce right back from the virus, or don’t even know they have it—while others become critically ill. Two studies suggest that one reason may be previously unknown trouble spots in the immune systems, which hamper ability to fight the virus.

COVID-19 Science Updates
CDC, 2020 Brand (Posted: Sep-23-2020 1PM)

This series, the first of its kind for a CDC emergency response, provides brief summaries of new COVID-19-related studies on many topics, including epidemiology, clinical treatment and management, laboratory science, and modeling. These summaries are released every Tuesday and Friday.

Genome Data Help to Track COVID-19 Superspreading Event
NIH Director's blog, September 8, 2020 Brand (Posted: Sep-16-2020 9AM)

As SARS-CoV-2 spreads, the virus sometimes picks up a new mutation. Those changes in the viral genome usually have no effect on how the virus causes disease, but they do serve as distinct fingerprints that can be used by researchers can trace the path the virus took through a community and beyond,identifying connections that would be untrackable otherwise.

Study Ties COVID-19-Related Syndrome in Kids to Altered Immune System
NIH Director's blog, September 1, 2020 Brand (Posted: Sep-02-2020 9AM)

Barriers and Facilitators to Recruiting Study Participants in Host Genomic Studies
M Dixon et al, CDC Blog, September 1, 2020 Brand (Posted: Sep-02-2020 8AM)

Genetic studies of COVID-19 should strive to be representative of the larger population. Research studies often provide the most benefit to the populations that are studied, and some of these populations, such as Blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans, have been historically underrepresented in medical research.

People with intellectual and developmental disabilities disproportionately affected by COVID-19
NIH, August 28, 2020 Brand (Posted: Aug-30-2020 11AM)

The COVID-19 pandemic has taken a disproportionate toll on people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs). Many people with IDD who require in-person care have lost the support of trained caregivers and community service providers. CDC has issued guidelines for group homes, schools, and others entrusted with the care of people with IDD.

People with Moderate to Severe Asthma
CDC, August 2020 Brand (Posted: Aug-28-2020 8AM)

People with moderate to severe asthma may be at higher risk of getting very sick from COVID-19. COVID-19 can affect your nose, throat, lungs (respiratory tract); cause an asthma attack; and possibly lead to pneumonia and acute respiratory disease.

Data on COVID-19 during Pregnancy
CDC, August 2020 Brand (Posted: Aug-28-2020 8AM)

A recent study suggests that pregnant women with COVID-19 are more likely to be hospitalized and are at increased risk for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and receipt of mechanical ventilation than nonpregnant women. Risk of death is similar for both groups. But much remains unknown.

Research Questions for Aerosol Scientists Addressing COVID-19 and the Workplace
WG Lindsley et al, NIOSH Blog, August 2020 Brand (Posted: Aug-25-2020 7AM)

Aerosol scientists bring a unique understanding of airborne particle behavior to infectious disease transmission studies. A recent commentary, “COVID-19 and the Workplace: Research Questions for the Aerosol Science Community,” presents some of the questions surrounding droplets and aerosols containing SARS-CoV-2 and provides suggestions for future research topics.

Assessing Risk Factors for Severe COVID-19 Illness
CDC, August 2020 Brand (Posted: Aug-14-2020 10AM)

COVID-19 can affect anyone, and the disease can cause symptoms ranging from mild to very severe. For some other illnesses caused by respiratory viruses (such as influenza), some people may be more likely to have severe illness than others because they have characteristics or medical conditions that increase their risk.

COVID-19 Genomics and Precision Public Health Weekly Update
CDC, August 2020 Brand (Posted: Aug-08-2020 10AM)

Rare Diseases and COVID-19
CDC COVID-19 Genomics and Precision Health Portal, August 2020 Brand (Posted: Aug-08-2020 10AM)

This section of the portal lists all rare diseases, many of which are genetic diseases, that have been connected to COVID-19 in the literature. As of today, there are 84 diseases/conditions from the list of nearly 7,000 rare diseases extracted from the NIH website that are related to COVID-19 literature or news and reports.

Potent neutralizing antibodies target new regions of coronavirus spike
NIH Research Matters, August 4, 2020 Brand (Posted: Aug-05-2020 8AM)

What We Know About COVID-19’s Effects on Child and Maternal Health
NIH Director's Blog, July 31, 2020 Brand (Posted: Jul-31-2020 9AM)

Phase 3 clinical trial of investigational vaccine for COVID-19 begins
NIH News, July 27, 2020 Brand (Posted: Jul-28-2020 9AM)

A Phase 3 clinical trial designed to evaluate if an investigational vaccine can prevent symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adults has begun. The vaccine, known as mRNA-1273, was co-developed by the Cambridge, Massachusetts-based biotechnology company Moderna, Inc., and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).

Placenta lacks major molecules used by SARS-CoV-2 virus to cause infection
NIH News, July 14, 2020 Brand (Posted: Jul-15-2020 7AM)

Experimental COVID-19 vaccine safe, generates immune response- NIH-sponsored Phase 1 trial tested mRNA vaccine.
NIH News, July 14, 2020 Brand (Posted: Jul-15-2020 7AM)

An investigational vaccine, mRNA-1273, designed to protect against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was generally well tolerated and prompted neutralizing antibody activity in healthy adults, according to interim results published online in The New England Journal of Medicine.

NIH-Wide Strategic Plan for COVID-19 Research
NIH, July 13, 2020 Brand (Posted: Jul-14-2020 8AM)

The NIH-wide COVID-19 Strategic Plan provides a framework for accelerating the development of therapeutic interventions, vaccines, and diagnostics. NIH will implement five cross-cutting strategies: fundamental research, innovation, partnerships, prevention and community interventions, as well as diagnosis and treatment.

SPHERES: SARS-CoV-2 Sequencing for Public Health Emergency Response, Epidemiology, and Surveillance
CDC, 2020 Brand (Posted: Jul-12-2020 3PM)

Large-scale, rapid genomic sequencing of the virus that causes COVID-19 will allow public health experts to 1) Monitor important changes in the virus as it continues to circulate; 2)Gain important insights to support contact tracing; 3) Provide crucial information to aid in identifying diagnostic and therapeutic targets; 4)Advance public health research.

COVID_19 Prevention Network
NIH, July 2020 Brand (Posted: Jul-10-2020 6AM)

Interested in volunteering for a COVID-19 Prevention Clinical Study? The mission of this network is to conduct Phase 3 vaccine and monoclonal antibody efficacy studies for the prevention of COVID-19.

COVID-19 Mathematical Modeling
CDC Information, June 2020 Brand (Posted: Jun-26-2020 8AM)

Mathematical modeling helps CDC and partners respond to the COVID-19 pandemic by informing decisions about pandemic planning, resource allocation, and implementation of social distancing measures and other interventions.

Evidence used to update the list of underlying medical conditions that increase a person’s risk of severe illness from COVID-19
CDC, June 2020 Brand (Posted: Jun-26-2020 8AM)

This list is a living document that will be periodically updated by CDC, and it could rapidly change as the science evolves. Severe illness from COVID-19 was defined as hospitalization, admission to the ICU, intubation or death. The level of evidence for each condition was determined by CDC reviewers based on available information.

From Precision Medicine to Precision Public Health: Beyond the Pandemic
MJ Khoury et al, CDC Blog Post, June 18, 2020 Brand (Posted: Jun-21-2020 3PM)

As the CDC Coronavirus Disease portal in genomics and precision health shows, an emerging display of scientific productivity is shifting the narrative from precision medicine to precision public health in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Genes, Blood Type Tied to Risk of Severe COVID-19
NIH Director's Blog, June 18, 2020 Brand (Posted: Jun-18-2020 4PM)

The analysis identified two places, one on chromosome 3 and covers a cluster of six genes with potentially relevant functions such as a protein known to interact with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The other association signal popped up on chromosome 9, right over the area of the genome that determines ABO blood type.

Impact of Host Genomics on COVID-19: What We Know and Don’t Know
CDC Webinar, July 23, 2020 Brand (Posted: Jun-17-2020 8AM)

Dr. Priya Duggal will discuss what we know and don’t know about the role of host genomics in COVID-19, as well as ongoing initiatives and studies that are seeking to assess the role of host genomics in COVID-19. She will also discuss the potential public health impact of host genomics in COVID-19 and the importance of sound epidemiological study designs.

NIH launches analytics platform to harness nationwide COVID-19 patient data to speed treatments
NIH, June 15, 2020 Brand (Posted: Jun-16-2020 9AM)

The N3C will create an analytics platform to systematically collect clinical, laboratory and diagnostic data from health care provider organizations nationwide. It will then harmonize the aggregated information into a standard format and make it available rapidly for researchers and health care providers.

CDC podcast, May 26, 2020 Brand (Posted: May-26-2020 4PM)

SPHERES is a new CDC national genomics consortium established to coordinate SARS-CoV-2 sequencing in laboratories across the United States. The podcast discusses how this new effort will allow scientists at CDC and other public health agencies to monitor changes in the virus as it circulates whiles providing crucial diagnostic and potential treatment information.

NCI COVID-19 in Cancer Patients Study (NCCAPS)
NCI, May 2020 Brand (Posted: May-23-2020 10AM)

NIH clinical trial testing antiviral remdesivir plus anti-inflammatory drug baricitinib for COVID-19 begins
NIH News, May 8, 2020 Brand (Posted: May-09-2020 7AM)

The trial is now enrolling hospitalized adults with COVID-19 in the United States. The trial is expected to open at approximately 100 U.S. and international sites. Investigators currently anticipate enrolling more than 1,000 participants.

NIH-supported research survey to examine impact of COVID-19 on rare diseases community
NIH, May 7, 2020 Brand (Posted: May-08-2020 8AM)

For the millions of people living with a rare disease, the novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 presents challenges, from potential reduced access to needed medical care to possible heightened anxiety and stress. A new online survey aims to find out how the COVID-19 pandemic is impacting individuals with rare diseases, their families and their caregivers.

Federal Effort to Evaluate Antibody Tests for Novel Coronavirus
NCI, May 5, 2020 Brand (Posted: May-06-2020 8AM)

The Prime Cellular Targets for the Novel Coronavirus
NIH Director's Blog, May 5, 2020 Brand (Posted: May-05-2020 10AM)

A new study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 and potentially other coronaviruses that rely on ACE2 may take advantage of the immune system’s natural defenses. When the body responds to the infection by producing more interferon, that in turn results in production of more ACE2, enhancing the ability of the virus to attach more readily to lung cells.

How Can Evidence Synthesis be Conducted at the Speed of a Pandemic?
CG ALlen et al, CDC Blog, May 2020 Brand (Posted: May-05-2020 7AM)

The speed at which new information is now available about COVID-19 is far outpacing our ability to synthesize the cumulative evidence in a timely fashion. Quality evidence synthesis is more important than ever. To save the most lives, we need the best available science in the global fight against COVID-19.

CDC launches national viral genomics consortium to better map SARS-CoV-2 transmission
CDC Press Release, May 1, 2020 Brand (Posted: May-04-2020 5PM)

Genomic sequence data can give unprecedented insight into the biology of SARS-CoV-2, and help define the changing landscape of the pandemic. By sequencing viruses from across the US, CDC and other public health authorities can monitor changes in the virus and use this information to guide contact tracing, public health mitigation efforts, and infection control.

SARS-CoV-2 Sequencing for Public Health Emergency Response, Epidemiology, and Surveillance (SPHERES)
CDC, May 1, 2020 Brand (Posted: May-01-2020 10AM)

This CDC initiative will help monitor important changes in the virus as it continues to circulate, gain important insights to support contact tracing, provide crucial information to aid in identifying diagnostic and therapeutic targets, and advance public health research in the areas of transmission dynamics, host response, and evolution of the virus.

Using Digital Technologies in Precision Public Health: COVID-19 and Beyond
MJ Khoury et al, CDC Blog, April 2020 Brand (Posted: Apr-26-2020 8AM)

With the global spread of COVID-19, there is a proliferation of scientific information and publications that use novel approaches such as genomics and precision health tools (e.g., big data, wearables, and digital devices) in surveillance and epidemiologic investigations. Could these new technologies provide added value to traditional approaches?

Why Forecasting COVID-19 Deaths in the US is Critical
CDC, April 2020 Brand (Posted: Apr-25-2020 7AM)

Forecasts based on the use of statistical or mathematical models (subsequently referred to as “models”) aim to predict changes in national- and state-level cumulative reported COVID-19 deaths for the next four weeks.

NIAID strategic plan details COVID-19 research priorities
NIH, April 23, 2020 Brand (Posted: Apr-23-2020 10AM)

This include four key priorities. The first involves improving fundamental knowledge of virus including studies to characterize the virus and better understand how it causes infection and disease. This includes natural history, transmission studies to determine why some individuals experience mild symptoms while others become critically ill.

The Public Health Impact of COVID-19: Why Host Genomics?
MJ Khoury el al, CDC Blog, April 21, 2020 Brand (Posted: Apr-22-2020 0PM)

Ideally, scientific studies of COVID-19 risk factors for transmission and severity should include both viral and human genomes and the interaction of these two genomes, along with other traditional environmental, social and economic factors, and emerging types of big data. This is part of a precision public health response.

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Treatment Guidelines
NIH, April 21, 2020 Brand (Posted: Apr-22-2020 9AM)

Expert U.S. panel develops NIH treatment guidelines for COVID-19- “Living document” expected to be updated often as new clinical data accrue.
NIH, April 21, 2020 Brand (Posted: Apr-22-2020 8AM)

Pursuing Safe and Effective Anti-Viral Drugs for COVID-19
NIH Director's blog, April 17, 2020 Brand (Posted: Apr-19-2020 9AM)

Over the past several weeks, a mind-boggling array of possible therapies have been considered. None have yet been proven to be effective in rigorously controlled trials, but for one of them, it’s been a busy week. An experimental anti-viral drug, called remdesivir, has encouraging preliminary results that come with major caveats.

Antiviral remdesivir prevents disease progression in monkeys with COVID-19 Study supports clinical testing under way across U.S.
NIH News release, APril 17, 2020 Brand (Posted: Apr-19-2020 9AM)

NIH to launch public-private partnership to speed COVID-19 vaccine and treatment options
NIH, April 17, 2020 Brand (Posted: Apr-18-2020 8AM)

Therapeutic Interventions and Vaccines (ACTIV) partnership will develop a collaborative framework for prioritizing vaccine and drug candidates, streamlining clinical trials, coordinating regulatory processes and/or leveraging assets among all partners to rapidly respond to the COVID-19 and future pandemics.

COVID-19 and Older Adults
CDC, April 2020 Brand (Posted: Apr-15-2020 2PM)

Older adults and people who have severe underlying medical conditions like heart or lung disease or diabetes seem to be at higher risk for developing more serious complications from COVID-19 illness. There are things you can do to reduce your risk of getting sick.

Antibody Points to Possible Weak Spot on Novel Coronavirus
F Collins, Director's blog, April 14, 2020 Brand (Posted: Apr-15-2020 7AM)

NIH begins study to quantify undetected cases of coronavirus infection
NIH, April 10, 2020 Brand (Posted: Apr-11-2020 8AM)

NIH clinical trial of hydroxychloroquine, a potential therapy for COVID-19, begins
NIH, April 9, 2020 Brand (Posted: Apr-10-2020 8AM)

Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Children — United States, February 12–April 2, 2020
CDC MMWR, April 6, 2020 Brand (Posted: Apr-06-2020 2PM)

Among 345 pediatric cases, 80 (23%) had at least one underlying condition. The most common underlying conditions were chronic lung disease (including asthma) (40), cardiovascular disease (25), and immunosuppression (10). 77% of hospitalized patients, including all six patients admitted to an ICU, had one or more underlying medical condition.

COVIDView: A Weekly Surveillance Summary of U.S. COVID-19 Activity
CDC, April 2020 Brand (Posted: Apr-05-2020 8AM)

This CDC report provides a weekly summary and interpretation of key indicators being adapted to track the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. This includes information related to COVID-19 outpatient visits, emergency department visits, hospitalizations and deaths, as well as laboratory data.

CDC Statement on COVID-19 App
CDC, March 27, 2020 Brand (Posted: Mar-30-2020 9AM)

The tool provides CDC recommendations on next steps including guidance on social distancing and self-isolating, how to closely monitor symptoms, recommendations on testing, and when to contact a medical provider.

Caring for Children- Tips to keep children healthy while school’s out
CDC, March 2020 Brand (Posted: Mar-30-2020 8AM)

Information for Laboratories
CDC, 2020 Brand (Posted: Mar-28-2020 8AM)

This page includes interim guidance and resources for laboratory professionals working with specimens from persons under investigation (PUI) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Testing in U.S.
CDC, March 2020 Brand (Posted: Mar-28-2020 8AM)

the total number of public health laboratories (PHL) that have completed verification and are offering testing is 92. This includes one or more PHL in 50 states plus DC, Guam and Puerto Rico.

To Beat COVID-19, Social Distancing is a Must
NIH Director Blog, March 19,2020 Brand (Posted: Mar-22-2020 9AM)

• For every confirmed case of COVID-19, there are likely another five to 10 people with undetected infections. • Although they are thought to be only about half as infectious as individuals with confirmed COVID-19, individuals with undetected infections were so prevalent in China that they apparently were the infection source for 86 percent of confirmed cases. • After China established travel restrictions and social distancing, the spread of COVID-19 slowed considerably.

Are You at Higher Risk for Severe Illness?
CDC, March 2020 Brand (Posted: Mar-20-2020 0PM)

People who are at higher risk from severe illness Some people may be at higher risk of getting very sick from this illness. This includes: •Older adults •People who have serious underlying medical conditions like: ?Heart disease ?Diabetes ?Lung disease

Estimating clinical severity of COVID-19 from the transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China
JT Wu et al, Nature Medicine, March 19, 2020 Brand (Posted: Mar-19-2020 0PM)

Using public and published information, we estimate that the overall symptomatic case fatality risk (the probability of dying after developing symptoms) of COVID-19 in Wuhan was 1.4% (0.9–2.1%). Compared to those aged 30–59?years, those aged below 30 and above 59 years were 0.6 (0.3–1.1) and 5.1 (4.2–6.1) times more likely to die after developing symptoms.

SARS-CoV-2 Sequencing Resources
CDC GitHub, March 2020 Brand (Posted: Mar-19-2020 8AM)

This document repository is meant to serve as the start of a crowd-sourced collection of information, documentation, protocols and other resources for public health laboratories intending to sequence SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus samples in the coming weeks.

New coronavirus stable for hours on surfaces-SARS-CoV-2 stability similar to original SARS virus.
NIH News, March 17, 2020 Brand (Posted: Mar-17-2020 4PM)

The scientists found that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was detectable in aerosols for up to three hours, up to four hours on copper, up to 24 hours on cardboard and up to two to three days on plastic and stainless steel (COVID-19).

Updated Guidance on Evaluating and Testing Persons for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
CDC, March 11, 2020 Brand (Posted: Mar-11-2020 11AM)

Clinicians should use their judgment to determine if a patient has signs and symptoms compatible with COVID-19 and whether the patient should be tested. Most patients with confirmed COVID-19 have developed fever1 and/or symptoms of acute respiratory illness (e.g., cough, difficulty breathing). Priorities for testing include several factors.

LITCOVID: curated literature hub for tracking up-to-date scientific information about the 2019 novel Coronavirus
NCBI, 2020 Brand (Posted: Mar-10-2020 0PM)

A curated literature hub for tracking up-to-date scientific information about the 2019 novel Coronavirus. It is the most comprehensive resource on the subject, providing a central access to a growing number of peer-review articles. The articles are updated daily and are further categorized by different research topics and geographic locations for improved access

Interim Guidelines for Collecting, Handling, and Testing Clinical Specimens from Persons Under Investigation (PUIs) for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
CDC, March 2020 Brand (Posted: Mar-10-2020 8AM)

Health care providers should contact their local/state health department immediately to notify them of patients with fever and lower respiratory illness who live in or have recently traveled to an affected area with sustained transmission or have been in close contact with a confirmed COVID-19 patient.

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
NIH, March 2020 Brand (Posted: Mar-10-2020 8AM)

COVID-19 a Reminder of the Challenge of Emerging Infectious Diseases
NIAID, February 28, 2020 Brand (Posted: Feb-29-2020 9AM)

“The COVID-19 outbreak is a stark reminder of the ongoing challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious pathogens and the need for constant surveillance, prompt diagnosis and robust research to understand the basic biology of new organisms and our susceptibilities to them, as well as to develop effective countermeasures.

NIH clinical trial of remdesivir to treat COVID-19 begins
NIH, February 25, 2020 Brand (Posted: Feb-29-2020 9AM)

“We urgently need a safe and effective treatment for COVID-19. Although remdesivir has been administered to some patients with COVID-19, we do not have solid data to indicate it can improve clinical outcomes."

Know the facts about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and help stop the spread of rumors.
CDC, 2020 Brand (Posted: Feb-28-2020 8AM)

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the U.S
CDC, 2020 Brand (Posted: Feb-28-2020 8AM)

CDC is closely monitoring an outbreak of respiratory illness caused by a novel (new) coronavirus. The outbreak first started in Wuhan, China, but cases have been identified in a growing number of other international locations, including the United States. This page will be updated regularly on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays.

How COVID-19 Spreads
CDC, February 2020 Brand (Posted: Feb-24-2020 6AM)

Current understanding about how the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads is largely based on what is known about similar coronaviruses. The virus is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person.

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Summary
CDC, February 2020 Brand (Posted: Feb-24-2020 6AM)

This is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation and CDC will provide updated information as it becomes available, in addition to updated guidance.

#2019nCoV Videos
CDC YouTube videos, February 2020 Brand (Posted: Feb-08-2020 9AM)

Shipping of CDC 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diagnostic Test Kits Begins
CDC, February 6, 2020 Brand (Posted: Feb-07-2020 8AM)

A CDC-developed laboratory test kit to detect 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) began shipping yesterday to select qualified U.S. and international laboratories. Distribution of the tests will help improve the global capacity to detect and respond to the 2019 novel coronavirus.

Coronavirus Genomics and Precision Health Knowledge Base
PHGKB information and publications on coronavirus, genomics and precision health Brand (Posted: Jan-31-2020 9AM)

The latest information and publications on the role of genomics and precision health technologies in the investigation and control of coronavirus infection.

Novel Coronavirus, Wuhan, China
CDC, 2020 Brand (Posted: Jan-21-2020 1PM)

The outbreak in Wuhan, China has been linked to a large seafood and animal market, suggesting a possible zoonotic origin to the outbreak. There are ongoing investigations to learn more.

Laboratory Testing for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, California, USA, 2013?2014
M Shahkrami et al, Emerg Infectious Diseases, Sept 2015 Brand (Posted: Feb-25-2015 0PM)

Disclaimer: Articles listed in Hot Topics of the Day are selected by the CDC Office of Public Health Genomics to provide current awareness of the scientific literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.