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Hot Topics of the Day are picked by experts to capture the latest information and publications on public health genomics and precision health for various diseases and health topics. Sources include published scientific literature, reviews, blogs and popular press articles.

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24021 hot topic(s) found with the query "All"

The Virus Won’t Stop Evolving When the Vaccine Arrives
J Gorman et al, NY Times, November 29, 2020 (Posted: Nov-30-2020 11AM)

The coronavirus is not a shape shifter like the flu virus, but it could become vaccine resistant over time. That prompts researchers to urge vigilance.

More Good News For Moderna's COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate
R Harris, NPR, November 30, 2020 (Posted: Nov-30-2020 10AM)

Assessment of physiological signs associated with COVID-19 measured using wearable devices
A Natarjan et al, NPJ Digital Medicine, November 30, 2020 (Posted: Nov-30-2020 10AM)

Respiration rate, heart rate, and heart rate variability (HRV) are some health metrics that are easily measured by consumer devices. Furthermore, mobile applications that accompany wearable devices can be used to collect relevant self-reported symptoms and demographic data. This makes consumer devices a valuable tool in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. This study reports on predictive ability of these tools in tracking the course of illness and need for hospitalization.

Toward superhuman SARS-CoV-2 immunity?
DR Burton et al, Nature Medicine, November 30, 2020 (Posted: Nov-30-2020 10AM)

Where does the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 lie along the spectrum of natural infection versus vaccine-induced protective efficacy? The answer to this question will be known only as more data are collected from ongoing natural infection and vaccine studies; the initial results from interim analyses of mRNA vaccines against SAR-CoV-2 showing a reduction in infections of around 95% are very encouraging.

Effective control of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Wanzhou, China
Q Shi et al, Nature Medicine, November 30, 2020 (Posted: Nov-30-2020 10AM)

The effectiveness of control measures to contain coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wanzhou, China was assessed. Epidemiological data were analyzed for 183 confirmed COVID-19 cases and their close contacts from five generations of transmission. The spread of COVID-19 was effectively controlled in Wanzhou by breaking the transmission chain through social distancing, extensive contact tracing, mass testing and strict quarantine of close contacts.

Reflections on dynamic consent in biomedical research: the story so far.
Teare Harriet J A et al. European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2020 Nov (Posted: Nov-30-2020 10AM)

Dynamic consent (DC) was originally developed in response to challenges to the informed consent process presented by participants agreeing to ‘future research’ in biobanking. In the past 12 years, it has been trialled in a number of different projects, and examined as a new approach for consent and to support patient engagement over time

Do You Have a Conflict of Interest? This Robotic Assistant May Find It First
DS Chawla, NY Times, November 23, 2020 (Posted: Nov-30-2020 10AM)

Software named the Artificial Intelligence Review Assistant, or AIRA, checks for potential conflicts of interest by flagging whether the authors of a manuscript, the editors dealing with it or the peer reviewers refereeing it have been co-authors on papers in the past.

A double-edged sword - Telemedicine for maternal care during COVID-19: Findings from a global mixed methods study of healthcare providers
A Galle et al, MEDRXIV, November 29, 2020 (Posted: Nov-29-2020 7AM)

Performance of prediction models for short term outcome in COVID-19 patients in the emergency department: a retrospective study
P van Dam et al, MEDRXIV, November 29, 2020 (Posted: Nov-29-2020 7AM)

Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease does not significantly alter major COVID-19 outcomes among veterans
X Cui et al, MEDRXIV, November 29, 2020 (Posted: Nov-29-2020 7AM)

Symptom-based prediction model of SARS-1 CoV-2 infection developed from self-reported symptoms of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals in an online survey
D Schulze et al, MEDRXIV, November 29, 2020 (Posted: Nov-29-2020 7AM)

Virus spreading in ride-pooling networks. Can ride-pooling become a safe and sustainable mobility alternative for pandemic urban systems?
R Kucharski et al, ARXIV, November 25, 2020 (Posted: Nov-29-2020 7AM)

Regional Impacts of COVID-19 on Carbon Dioxide Detected Worldwide from Space
B Weir et al, ARXIV, November 25, 2020 (Posted: Nov-29-2020 7AM)

Tracing the origins of SARS-CoV-2 in coronavirus phylogenies
Sallard et al, ARXIV, November 25, 2020 (Posted: Nov-29-2020 7AM)

Inverted repeats in coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 genome and implications in evolution
C Yin et al, ARXIV, November 24, 2020 (Posted: Nov-29-2020 7AM)

condLSTM-Q: A novel deep learning model for predicting Covid-19 mortality in fine geographical Scale
H Jo et al, ARXIV, November 23, 2020 (Posted: Nov-29-2020 7AM)

COVID-19 and Social Distancing: Disparities in Mobility Adaptation by Income
K Lio et al, ARXIV, November 25, 2020 (Posted: Nov-28-2020 0PM)

A longitudinal study was performed on mobility as measured by the total travel distance, the radius of gyration, and the number of visited locations in April 2020 compared to the data in January and February 2020. An apparent disparity in mobility has been found across income groups. In particular, there was a strong negative correlation (\r{ho} = -0.90) between the estimated income bracket of a traveler and the travel distance in April.

A state-based approach to genomics for rare disease and population screening.
East Kelly M et al. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 2020 Nov (Posted: Nov-28-2020 0PM)

The Alabama Genomic Health Initiative (AGHI) is a state-funded effort to provide genomic testing. AGHI engages two distinct cohorts across the state of Alabama. One cohort includes children and adults with undiagnosed rare disease; a second includes an unselected adult population. Here we describe findings from the first 176 rare disease and 5369 population cohort AGHI participants.

PARP inhibitors coming of age
NP Shimon et al, Nat Rev Clin Oncology, November 2020 (Posted: Nov-28-2020 0PM)

The much anticipated results from two phase III studies evaluating the clinical efficacy of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition in patients with advanced-stage breast cancer harboring a germline mutation in BRCA1/2 have established new therapeutic opportunities and yet, have left us with several ongoing questions.

Genomics of hypertension: the road to precision medicine.
Padmanabhan Sandosh et al. Nature reviews. Cardiology 2020 Nov (Posted: Nov-28-2020 0PM)

In this Review, we appraise the current knowledge of blood pressure genomics, explore the causal pathways for hypertension identified in Mendelian randomization studies and highlight the opportunities for drug repurposing and pharmacogenomics for the treatment of hypertension.

Prognostic Genomic Biomarkers in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer: Is Rising Utilization Justified by Evidence?
Lin Daniel W et al. JAMA oncology 2020 Nov (Posted: Nov-28-2020 0PM)

Although genomic tests are widely available and used, the lack of adoption into the standard-of-care pathways and guidelines is primarily attributed to the fact that none have been prospectively tested or shown to improve long-term outcomes, such as quality of life, need for treatment, or survival.

Regional Adoption of Commercial Gene Expression Testing for Prostate Cancer.
Leapman Michael S et al. JAMA oncology 2020 Nov (Posted: Nov-28-2020 0PM)

This cohort study of commercially insured patients with prostate cancer found that although adoption of genomic testing was highly variable, there were distinct regional trajectories of adoption. Rapid regional adoption of genomic testing was associated with higher contextual measures of income, education, and prostate cancer services.

Clonal hematopoiesis is associated with risk of severe Covid-19
KL Bolton et al, MEDRXIV, NOvember 27, 2020 (Posted: Nov-28-2020 0PM)

Among 515 individuals with Covid-19 we found that CH was associated with severe Covid-19 outcomes (OR=1.9, 95%=1.2-2.9, p=0.01). We further explored the relationship between CH and risk of other infections in 14,211 solid tumor patients at MSK. CH was significantly associated with risk of Clostridium Difficile and Streptococcus/Enterococcus infections. These findings suggest a relationship between CH and risk of severe infections that warrants further investigation.

Validation and implementation of a direct RT-qPCR method for rapid screening of SARS-CoV-2 infection by using non-invasive saliva samples
P Brotons et al, MEDRXIV, November 27, 2020 (Posted: Nov-28-2020 0PM)

Evaluation of SARS-CoV2 antibody Rapid Diagnostic Test kits (RDTs) and Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Rt-PCR) for COVID-19 Diagnosis in Kaduna, Nigeria
O Ige et al, MEDRXIV, NOvember 27, 2020 (Posted: Nov-28-2020 0PM)

Can dogs smell COVID? Here’s what the science says Canines seem to detect coronavirus infections with remarkable accuracy, but researchers say large-scale studies are needed before the approach is scaled up.
H Else, Nature News, November 23, 2020 (Posted: Nov-28-2020 0PM)

Predicting the risk of developing diabetic retinopathy using deep learning
A Bora et al, Lancet Digital Health, November 26, 2020 (Posted: Nov-27-2020 2PM)

We created and validated a deep-learning system to predict the development of diabetic retinopathy in patients with diabetes who had had teleretinal diabetic retinopathy screening in a primary care setting. Deep-learning systems predicted diabetic retinopathy development using color fundus photographs, and the systems were independent of and more informative than available risk factors. Such a tool might help to optimize screening intervals to improve vision-related outcomes.

Molecular Features of Cancers Exhibiting Exceptional Responses to Treatment
DA Wheeler et al, Cancer Cell, November 2020 (Posted: Nov-27-2020 2PM)

Genomics of 110 patients with exceptional response to therapy profiled. Plausible molecular mechanisms related to therapy identified in ~23% of cases. Proposed mechanisms involve DNA damage, signaling, and the immune response. Synthetic lethality with temozolomide in tumors with a defective DNA damage response.

Toward Understanding COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Deep-learning-based Approach for Severity Analysis and Monitoring the Disease
M Zandehshahvar et al, MEDRXIV, NOvember 27, 2-2- (Posted: Nov-27-2020 2PM)

Association of Toll-like receptor 7 variants with life-threatening COVID-19 disease in males
C Fallerini et al, MEDRXIV, November 27, 2020 (Posted: Nov-27-2020 2PM)

Host genetics of coronavirus infection
DG Burgess, Nature Rev Genetics, November 26, 2020 (Posted: Nov-27-2020 10AM)

Characterizing the role of host genetics in SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may help to understand the diverse clinical outcomes of infected individuals, as well as providing mechanistic information on host–virus interactions and potential drug targets. Two new reports use genome-wide CRISPR screens to uncover host determinants of coronavirus infection, identifying potential leads for antiviral therapeutics.

CDC COVID Data Tracker: Maps, charts, and data provided by the CDC
CDC, 2020 Brand (Posted: Nov-27-2020 10AM)

Total cases are based on aggregate counts of COVID-19 cases reported by state and territorial jurisdictions to CDC since January 21, 2020. The numbers are confirmed and probable COVID-19 cases as reported by U.S. states, U.S. territories, New York City, and the District of Columbia from the previous day.

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices' Ethical Principles for Allocating Initial Supplies of COVID-19 Vaccine - United States, 2020.
McClung Nancy et al. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 2020 Nov (47) 1782-1786 (Posted: Nov-27-2020 10AM)

During the period when the US supply of COVID-19 vaccines is limited, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) will make vaccine allocation recommendations. In addition to scientific data and implementation feasibility, 4 principles will assist ACIP in formulating recommendations for the initial allocation of COVID-19 vaccine: 1) maximizing benefits and minimizing harms; 2) promoting justice; 3) mitigating health inequities; and 4) promoting transparency.

Trends in County-Level COVID-19 Incidence in Counties With and Without a Mask Mandate - Kansas, June 1-August 23, 2020.
Van Dyke Miriam E et al. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 2020 Nov (47) 1777-1781 (Posted: Nov-27-2020 10AM)

The governor of Kansas issued an executive order requiring wearing masks in public spaces, effective July 3, 2020, which was subject to county authority to opt out. After July 3, COVID-19 incidence decreased in 24 counties with mask mandates but continued to increase in 81 counties without mask mandates.

About CDC COVID-19 Data
CDC, November 2020 Brand (Posted: Nov-27-2020 9AM)

CDC reports COVID-19 case counts, deaths, and laboratory testing numbers daily online. Data on the COVID-19 website and CDC’s COVID Data Tracker are based on the most recent numbers reported by states, territories, and other jurisdictions. Data are dependent on jurisdictions’ timely and accurate reporting.

Functional genomics
PHG Foundation, November 2020 (Posted: Nov-27-2020 9AM)

Functional genomics is a field of molecular biology where researchers attempt to understand the complex relationship between genotype and phenotype. While genetics and genomics cover the study of genes and all of an organism’s genetic material, respectively, functional genomics aims to answer biological questions about how genes are activated and operate in a dynamic, context dependent, and synergistic fashion, using a range of genomics and associated ‘omics datasets.

Your phone can send you an alert if you were near someone who has coronavirus
F Karimi, CNN, November 26, 2020 (Posted: Nov-27-2020 9AM)

Thanks to smart phone technology, you can now get pop-up notifications in some states if you were close to someone who later tested positive for Covid-19. The alerts come via state health department apps that use Bluetooth technology to detect when you (or more precisely, your phone) has been in close contact with an infected person's phone.

RNA vaccines: an introduction
PHG Foundation, November 2020 (Posted: Nov-26-2020 8AM)

Conventional vaccine approaches have not been as effective against rapidly evolving pathogens like influenza or emerging disease threats such as the Ebola, Zika viruses or COVID-19. RNA based vaccines could have an impact in these areas due to their shorter manufacturing times and greater effectiveness. Beyond infectious diseases, RNA vaccines have potential as novel therapeutic options for major diseases such as cancer.

Estimating the effectiveness of routine asymptomatic PCR testing at different frequencies for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infections
J Hellewel et al, MEDRXIV, November 24, 2020 (Posted: Nov-26-2020 8AM)

MEGA: Machine Learning-Enhanced Graph Analytics for COVID-19 Infodemic Control
CN Hang et al, November 25, 2020 (Posted: Nov-26-2020 7AM)

Monitoring COVID-19 related public Interest and population Health Literacy in South Asia: An Internet Search-Interest Based Model
H Symum et al, MEDRXIV, November 25, 2020 (Posted: Nov-26-2020 7AM)

The Contrasting Role of Nasopharyngeal Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) Expression in SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Cross-Sectional Study of People Tested for COVID-19 in British Columbia
AM Nikiforuk et al, MEDRXIV, November 25, 2020 (Posted: Nov-26-2020 7AM)

LAMP-BEAC: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA Using RT-LAMP and Molecular Beacons
SS Mix, et al, MEDRXIV, November 25, 2020 (Posted: Nov-26-2020 7AM)

Mining a GWAS of Severe Covid-19
DH Katz et al, NEJM, November 24, 2020 (Posted: Nov-25-2020 10AM)

The COVID-19 genetic risk variant rs657152-A at the ABO locus is strongly associated with increased levels of the CD209 antigen. This dendritic cell-surface protein has been found to facilitate infection by SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses.

Association of Hemochromatosis HFE p.C282Y Homozygosity With Hepatic Malignancy
JL Atkins et al, JAMA, November 24, 2020 (Posted: Nov-25-2020 9AM)

In this cohort study that included 451?186 individuals, the risk of primary hepatic malignancy among 1294 male homozygous participants compared with men without pathogenic variants was 7.2% vs 0.6%, and the risk of all-cause death was 19.5% vs 15.1%; both differences were statistically significant. There were no statistically significant associations for women.

Family Health History PHGKB
CDC, November 2020 Brand (Posted: Nov-25-2020 9AM)

Family Health History PHGKB is an online, continuously updated, searchable database of information and publications relevant to the role of family health history in healthcare and disease prevention.

Prevent COVID-19 deaths by prioritizing interventions for Hispanic, Latino, and Black populations in the US
IHME, November 24, 2020 (Posted: Nov-25-2020 9AM)

Analysis by IHME comparing the risk of dying from COVID-19 by race and ethnicity confirms that Hispanic or Latino Americans, and non-Hispanic Black Americans are more likely to die from COVID-19 than non-Hispanic whites. The excess risk is also higher among younger age groups, indicating that work exposure is one potential source of this disparity.

Evidence Builds That an Early Mutation Made the Pandemic Harder to Stop
J Glanz et al, NY Times, November 24, 2020 (Posted: Nov-25-2020 9AM)

Scientists were initially skeptical that a mutation made the coronavirus more contagious. But new research has changed many of their minds.

Sensitive quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples using digital warm-start CRISPR assay
X Ding et al, MEDRXIV, November 23, 2020 (Posted: Nov-25-2020 9AM)

Epigenome-wide meta-analysis of PTSD across 10 military and civilian cohorts identifies methylation changes in AHRR
AK Smith et al, Nature Comm, November 2020 (Posted: Nov-25-2020 9AM)

Ten cohorts, military and civilian, contribute blood-derived DNA methylation data from 1,896 PTSD cases and trauma-exposed controls. Four CpG sites within the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) associate with PTSD after adjustment for multiple comparisons, with lower DNA methylation in PTSD cases relative to controls.

15 years of genome-wide association studies and no signs of slowing down
RJF Loos, Nature Comms, November, 2020 (Posted: Nov-25-2020 9AM)

Over the past 15 years, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have generated a wealth of new information. Larger samples sizes, refined phenotypes and higher-resolution genome-screens will continue to drive gene discovery in years ahead. Meanwhile, GWAS loci are increasingly translated into new biology and opportunities for clinical care.

Happy Thanksgiving 2020: Family and Family Health History Are As Important As Ever
RF Green et al, November 23, 2020 Brand (Posted: Nov-24-2020 1PM)

This Thanksgiving might not look the same as the ones before it, but some things haven’t changed. Even if you can’t see your loved ones in person, Thanksgiving is still a great time to talk to your family members about your family health history.

Transmission heterogeneities, kinetics, and controllability of SARS-CoV-2
K sun et al, Science, November 24, 2020 (Posted: Nov-24-2020 1PM)

Based on detailed patient and contact tracing data in Hunan, China we find 80% of secondary infections traced back to 15% of SARS-CoV-2 primary infections, indicating substantial transmission heterogeneities. Transmission risk scales positively with the duration of exposure and the closeness of social interactions and is modulated by demographic and clinical factors.

Assessment of 135 794 Pediatric Patients Tested for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Across the United States.
Bailey L Charles et al. JAMA pediatrics 2020 Nov (Posted: Nov-24-2020 8AM)

Discovery of rare variants associated with blood pressure regulation through meta-analysis of 1.3 million individuals
P Surendran et al, Nature Genetics, NOvember 23, 2020 (Posted: Nov-24-2020 8AM)

Indirect benefits are a crucial consideration when evaluating SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates
ME Gallagher et al, Nature Medicine, November 23, 2020 (Posted: Nov-24-2020 8AM)

Antibodies Good. Machine-Made Molecules Better? With help from computer algorithms, researchers designed proteins from scratch that can trounce the coronavirus in lab animals.
KJ Wu, NY Times, November 21, 2020 (Posted: Nov-24-2020 8AM)

Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A Reportable Disorder
I Kullo, Circulation, November 23, 2020 (Posted: Nov-24-2020 8AM)

I make the case for designating FH as a reportable condition, allowing HCPs or a public health agency to directly contact at-risk relatives. FH is “point-source outbreak” that is vertically transmitted to related persons. However, the transmittal rate is 50% among children and siblings, the associated risk of adverse cardiovascular events is high, and effective lipid-lowering medications are available.

Liquid biopsy versus tumor biopsy for clinical-trial recruitment
RB Corcoran, Nature Medicine, November 23, 2020 (Posted: Nov-24-2020 8AM)

Liquid biopsy has become a transformative diagnostic tool in clinical oncology. It has already entered clinical practice as an alternative means of molecular profiling of tumors, and it is showing promise in several other important emerging cancer applications, including detection of post-surgical minimal residual disease for prediction of recurrence, monitoring of response to treatment, and early detection of cancer.

Rising incidence of early-onset colorectal cancer - a call to action.
Akimoto Naohiko et al. Nature reviews. Clinical oncology 2020 Nov (Posted: Nov-24-2020 8AM)

The reasons for this increase remain unknown but plausible hypotheses include greater exposure to potential risk factors, such as a Western-style diet, obesity, physical inactivity and antibiotic use, especially during the early prenatal to adolescent periods of life. These exposures can not only cause genetic and epigenetic alterations in colorectal epithelial cells but also affect the gut microbiota and host immunity.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptation and evolution in patients with cystic fibrosis.
Rossi Elio et al. Nature reviews. Microbiology 2020 Nov (Posted: Nov-24-2020 8AM)

Intense genome sequencing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) airways has shown inefficient eradication of the infecting bacteria, as well as previously undocumented patient-to-patient transmission of adapted clones. However, genome sequencing has limited potential as a predictor of chronic infection and of the adaptive state during infection, and thus there is increasing interest in linking phenotypic traits to the genome sequences.

Transparency, trust, and community welfare: towards a precision public health ethics framework for the genomics era
ET Juengst et al, Genome Medicine, November 20, 2020 (Posted: Nov-23-2020 4PM)

Infectious disease control is experiencing a paradigm shift, as pathogen sequencing technologies and digital applications are increasingly implemented. A new ethical framework should ensure that the benefit of precision public health interventions is not outweighed by risks to individuals and vulnerable segments of the population. The ethical framework combines standard precepts from public health ethics with emerging ethics principles from precision medicine.

On-site rapid molecular testing, mobile sampling teams and eHealth to support primary care physicians during the COVID-19 pandemic
NN Cheung et al, MedRXIV, November 23, 2020 (Posted: Nov-23-2020 4PM)

The combination of rapid molecular testing and eHealth reduced the time between referral and results sent back to the GP to less than four hours. In addition, mobile sampling teams helped in reaching non-mobile, elderly patient populations with a higher prevalence of COVID-19.

Coagulation factors and COVID-19 severity: Mendelian randomization analyses and supporting evidence
Y Zhou et al, MEDRXIV, November 23, 2020 (Posted: Nov-23-2020 4PM)

We assessed causal relationship between 12 coagulation factors and severe COVID-19 illness based on Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses. We then curated clinical evidence supporting causal associations between COVID-19 severity and particular coagulation factors which showed significant results in MR analyses. We validated our results in an independent cohort from UK Biobank (UKBB) using polygenic risk score (PRS) analysis and logistic regression model.

Opportunistic genomic screening. Recommendations of the European Society of Human Genetics
EC de Wert et al, JHG, November 22, 2020 (Posted: Nov-23-2020 8AM)

The ESHG continues to recommend a cautious approach to opportunistic screening. Proportionality and autonomy must be guaranteed, and in collectively funded health-care systems the potential benefits must be balanced against health care expenditures. With regard to genome sequencing in pediatrics, ESHG argues that it is premature to look for later-onset conditions in children. Counseling should be offered and informed consent is and should be a central ethical norm.

Artificial intelligence is improving the detection of lung cancer- Machine learning systems for early detection could save lives.
E Svoboda, Nature Outlook, November 18, 2020 (Posted: Nov-23-2020 8AM)

Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer in the world — about 75% of those who have it die within five years of diagnosis. But when cancers are found early, the prognosis is much better. If tumors are small and confined to the lung, almost two-thirds of people survive for at least five years. The need for early detection has fueled the development of AI systems that can detect ever-smaller lung tumors.

How liquid biopsies allow smarter lung-cancer treatment- Technologies that count tumour cells in the blood promise to improve survival times.
B Placket, Nature Outlook, November 18, 2020 (Posted: Nov-23-2020 8AM)

Researchers hope to use liquid biopsies that measure the concentration of CTCs in the blood to monitor the effects of treatment and warn of potential relapses. “I’ve been an oncologist for about 30 years and this is the most exciting time for lung cancer research in my career.”

Why emergency COVID-vaccine approvals pose a dilemma for scientists Immunizations are speeding towards approval before clinical trials end, but scientists say this could complicate efforts to study long-term effects.
D Cyranoski, Nature News, November 23, 2020 (Posted: Nov-23-2020 8AM)

A simple direct RT-LAMP SARS-CoV-2 saliva diagnostic
MJ Flynn et al, MEDRXIV, November 22, 2020 (Posted: Nov-22-2020 11AM)

We report an optimized RT-LAMP-based SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic protocol for saliva and swab samples. When tested on clinical swab and saliva samples, this assay achieves a limit of detection of 105 viral genomes per ml, with sensitivity close to 90% and specificity close to 100%, and takes 45 minutes from sample collection to result, making it well suited for a COVID-19 surveillance program.

Risk of death among people with rare autoimmune diseases compared to the general population in England during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic.
RJ Peach et al, MEDRXIV, November 22, 2020 (Posted: Nov-22-2020 11AM)

Association of HLA class I genotypes with age at death of COVID-19 patients
M Shrulinkov et al, MEDRXIV, November 22, 2020 (Posted: Nov-22-2020 11AM)

Unsupervised cluster analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes reflects its geographic progression and identifies distinct genetic subgroups of SARS-CoV-2 virus
G Hahn et al, BIORXIV, November 20, 2020 (Posted: Nov-22-2020 11AM)

Seven vital questions about the RNA Covid-19 vaccines emerging from clinical trials
Wellcome Trust, November 19, 2020 (Posted: Nov-22-2020 11AM)

Preliminary data from phase III clinical trials show that Covid-19 vaccines to be more than 90% effective. They are the first vaccine candidates to produce such positive results, and this is great news. These vaccines, unlike the vaccines we already use for other diseases, have been developed using ribonucleic acid (RNA) technology. So, how do they work, are they safe, and when will they be available?

2 Companies Say Their Vaccines Are 95% Effective. What Does That Mean? You might assume that 95 out of every 100 people vaccinated will be protected from Covid-19. But that’s not how the math works
C Zimmer, NY Times, November 20, 2020 (Posted: Nov-21-2020 11AM)

Pfizer Asks FDA To Approve Its COVID-19 Vaccine For Emergency Use
C Dwyer, NPR, November 20, 2020 (Posted: Nov-21-2020 11AM)

These Algorithms Could Bring an End to the World’s Deadliest Killer- In rural India and other places where tuberculosis is rampant, A.I. that scans lung X-rays might eliminate the scourge.
A Mandavilli, NY Times, November 20, 2020 (Posted: Nov-21-2020 11AM)

In some of the most remote and impoverished corners of the world, where respiratory illnesses abound and trained medical professionals fear to tread, diagnosis is increasingly powered by artificial intelligence and the internet. In less than a minute, a new app on a phone or a computer can scan an X-ray for signs of tuberculosis, Covid-19 and 27 other conditions.

Urgent actions and policies needed to address COVID-19 among UK ethnic minorities
R Mathur et al, The Lancet, November 19, 2020 (Posted: Nov-21-2020 11AM)

The intersecting effects of occupation, community interactions, household environments, and structural racism are key drivers of excess exposure to SARS-CoV-2 among ethnic minorities.

COVID-19 Stats: COVID-19 Incidence,* by Urban-Rural Classification† — United States, January 22–October 31, 2020
CDC MMWR, November 20, 2020 (Posted: Nov-20-2020 11AM)

Host genetic susceptibility to viral infections: the role of type I interferon induction
M Bourdon et al, Genes and Immunity, November 20, 2020 (Posted: Nov-20-2020 9AM)

The innate immune response is the major front line of defense against viral infections. It involves hundreds of genes with antiviral properties which expression is induced by type I interferons (IFNs) and are therefore called interferon stimulated genes (ISGs). Type I IFNs are produced after viral recognition by pathogen recognition receptors, which trigger a cascade of activation events. Defective type I IFNs induction may hamper the ability to control viral infections.

Accelerating precision medicine in metastatic prostate cancer
J Mateo, Nature Cancer, November 17, 2020 (Posted: Nov-20-2020 9AM)

Disease classification based on genomic sequencing is a promising approach for identifying patients whose tumors exhibit actionable targets and for making more informed treatment decisions. Here we discuss how precision oncology can be accelerated to inform broader genomically driven clinical decisions for men with advanced prostate cancer.

Push Button Population Health: The SMART/HL7 FHIR Bulk Data Access Application Programming Interface
K Mandl et al, NPJ Digital Medicine, November 19, 2020 (Posted: Nov-20-2020 9AM)

The Office of the National Coordinator of Health Information Technology (ONC) published a rule—21st Century Cures Act Interoperability, Information Blocking, and the ONC Health IT Certification Program—regulating the API requirement along with protections against information blocking. The rule specifies the SMART/HL7 FHIR Bulk Data Access API, which enables access to patient-level data across a patient population, supporting use cases in healthcare, research, and public health.

Impact of prenatal exome sequencing for fetal genetic diagnosis on maternal psychological outcomes and decisional conflict in a prospective cohort
AN Talati et al, Genetics in Medicine, November 20, 2020 (Posted: Nov-20-2020 8AM)

Vaccine wagers on coronavirus surface protein pay off
J Cohen, Science, November 20, 2020 (Posted: Nov-20-2020 8AM)

SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV viral load dynamics, duration of viral shedding, and infectiousness: a systematic review and meta-analysis
M Cevik, The Lancet Microbe, November 2020 (Posted: Nov-20-2020 8AM)

We aimed to characterize viral load dynamics, duration of viral RNA shedding, and viable virus shedding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in various body fluids, and to compare SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) viral dynamics. 79 studies (5340 individuals) on SARS-CoV-2, eight studies (1858 individuals) on SARS-CoV, and 11 studies (799 individuals) on MERS-CoV were included.

Association of Circulating Tumor DNA With Disease-Free Survival in Breast Cancer A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
C Cullinane et al, JAMA Network Open, November 19, 2020 (Posted: Nov-20-2020 8AM)

This systematic review and meta-analysis of 8 studies comprising 739 patients found that elevated ctDNA levels were associated with poorer cancer outcomes in patients with early, locally advanced, and metastatic disease; ctDNA mutation detection was statistically significantly associated with shorter disease-free survival and a reduction in disease-free survival in both the early breast cancer subgroup and the metastatic and locally advanced subgroup.

Endometrial Cancer.
Lu Karen H et al. The New England journal of medicine 2020 Nov (21) 2053-2064 (Posted: Nov-20-2020 8AM)

Identification of the Lynch syndrome in patients with endometrial cancer has become increasingly important, since immune checkpoint blockade has been approved for the treatment of advanced disease with high microsatellite instability. Another factor favoring identification of patients with the Lynch syndrome is that they are at increased risk for colon cancer.

Safety and immunogenicity of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine administered in a prime-boost regimen in young and old adults (COV002): a single-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 2/3 trial
NN Ramasamy et al, The Lancet, November 18, 2020 (Posted: Nov-19-2020 0PM)

This is the fifth published clinical trial of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 tested in an older adult population (aged 18–55 years, 56–69 years, and =70 years). The vaccine was safe and well tolerated, with reduced reactogenicity in older adults. Antibody responses against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were induced in all age groups and were boosted and maintained at 28 days after booster vaccination, including in the 70 years and older group.

Mapping Racial and Ethnic Inequities in Health and Opportunity.
et al. The New England journal of medicine 2020 Nov (Posted: Nov-19-2020 11AM)

Throughout the United States, health status and outcomes, access to care, and socioeconomic status vary by race and ethnic group. This Interactive Perspective, which uses data aggregated by the Health Opportunity and Equity (HOPE) Initiative, allows readers to view and compare data on a range of indicators for each state and for six racial and ethnic groups.

First-Line Lorlatinib or Crizotinib in Advanced ALK -Positive Lung Cancer.
Shaw Alice T et al. The New England journal of medicine 2020 Nov (21) 2018-2029 (Posted: Nov-19-2020 11AM)

In an interim analysis of results among patients with previously untreated advanced ALK-positive NSCLC, those who received lorlatinib had significantly longer progression-free survival and a higher frequency of intracranial response than those who received crizotinib.

Looking to Long-term Survivors for Improved Pancreatic Cancer Treatment
BM Kuehn, JAMA, November 18, 2020 (Posted: Nov-19-2020 11AM)

“Patients may only get one chance at chemotherapy, and we also need much more and better options for them. What we really want is a biomarker from the patient's tumor that would predict which [regimen] they're going to do better than average on and choose that one. This is not easy to find.”

A Predictive Internet-Based Model for COVID-19 Hospitalization Census
PJ Turk et al, MEDRXIV, November 18, 2020 (Posted: Nov-19-2020 11AM)

Accuracy of deep learning based computed tomography diagnostic system of COVID-19: a consecutive sampling external validation cohort study
T Ikenoue et al, MEDRXIV, November 18, 2020 (Posted: Nov-19-2020 11AM)

Detecting COVID-19 infection hotspots in England using large-scale self-reported data from a mobile application: a prospective, observational study
T Varsvaski et al, MEDRXIV, November 18, 2020 (Posted: Nov-19-2020 11AM)

We performed modelling on longitudinal, self-reported data from users of the COVID Symptom Study app in England between 24 March and 29 September, 2020. Combining a symptom-based predictive model for COVID-19 positivity and RT-PCR tests provided by the Department of Health we were able to estimate disease incidence, prevalence and effective reproduction number.

Prothrombotic autoantibodies in serum from patients hospitalized with COVID-19
Y Zhuo et al, Science Translational Med, November 18, 2020 (Posted: Nov-19-2020 11AM)

The study measured eight types of antiphospholipid antibodies in serum from patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and found at least one antibody in half of patients. Antibody levels were associated with neutrophil and coagulation pathway activation. Purified antibodies from some patients activated neutrophils in vitro and potentiated thrombosis when injected into mice. Together, these findings suggest that autoantibodies are a potential therapeutic target in severe COVID-19.

Ensuring vaccine safety
DM Knipe et al, Science, November 17, 2020 (Posted: Nov-19-2020 11AM)

There is an urgent need for COVID-19 vaccines and exciting progress to that end, but there remains a critical public health obligation to conduct rigorous evaluation to ensure safety as well as efficacy. Vaccines remain one of the most successful biomedical tools for prevention of disease.

COVID-19 One-Stop Shop Toolkits
CDC, November 2020 Brand (Posted: Nov-19-2020 11AM)

Videos, Social Media, PSAs, Print Resources, Checklists, FAQs, and Web Resources. Find the tools you need to successfully communicate with your audiences.

Clinical Questions about COVID-19: Questions and Answers
CDC, November 2020 Brand (Posted: Nov-19-2020 11AM)

New Results: Coronavirus Vaccine Is Safe and 95% Effective
K Thomas, New York Times, November 18, 2020 (Posted: Nov-18-2020 11AM)

Implementation of a Pooled Surveillance Testing Program for Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections on a College Campus — Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, August 2–October 11, 2020
TN Denny et al, MMWR, November 17, 2020 (Posted: Nov-18-2020 11AM)

In fall 2020, Duke University’s COVID-19 prevention strategy included risk reduction behaviors, frequent testing using pooled SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction testing, and contact tracing. Among 10,265 students who received testing 68,913 times, 84 had positive results. One half of infections were asymptomatic, and some had high viral loads. Pooled testing reduced the need for resources while allowing high throughput with high sensitivity and rapid turnaround of results.

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Authorizes First COVID-19 Test for Self-Testing at Home
FDA Press Release, November 17, 2020 (Posted: Nov-18-2020 10AM)

The Test Kit is a molecular (real-time loop mediated amplification reaction) single use test that is intended to detect the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19. The test has been authorized for home use with self-collected nasal swab samples in individuals age 14 and older who are suspected of COVID-19 by their health care provider.

What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Cancer?
CDC, November 2020 Brand (Posted: Nov-18-2020 10AM)

Your risk of lung cancer may be higher if your parents, brothers or sisters, or children have had lung cancer. This could be true because they also smoke, or they live or work in the same place where they are exposed to radon and other substances that can cause lung cancer.


Disclaimer: Articles listed in Hot Topics of the Day are selected by the CDC Office of Public Health Genomics to provide current awareness of the scientific literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.