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Last Posted: Apr 10, 2024
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Dynamic SARS-CoV-2 surveillance model combining seroprevalence and wastewater concentrations for post-vaccine disease burden estimates
RH Holm et al, Comm Med, April 9, 2024

From the abstract: "We used weekly SARS-CoV-2 wastewater concentration with a stratified random sampling of seroprevalence, and linked vaccination and hospitalization data, from April 2021–August 2021 in Jefferson County, Kentucky (USA). We show the 64% county vaccination rate translate into about a 61% decrease in SARS-CoV-2 incidence. The estimated effect of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant emergence is a 24-fold increase of infection counts, which correspond to an over 9-fold increase in wastewater concentration. Hospitalization burden and wastewater concentration have the strongest correlation (r?=?0.95) at 1 week lag."

Human leukocyte antigen variants associate with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine response.
Martina Esposito et al. Commun Med (Lond) 2024 4 (1) 63

From the abstract: "We carried out a genome-wide association study to investigate the genetic determinants of the antibody response to the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine in an Italian cohort of 1351 subjects recruited in three centers. Linear regressions between normalized antibody levels and genotypes of more than 7 million variants was performed, using sex, age, centers, days between vaccination boost and serological test, and five principal components as covariates. We also analyzed the association between normalized antibody levels and 204 HLA alleles, with the same covariates as above. Our study confirms the involvement of the HLA locus and shows significant associations with variants in HLA-A, HLA-DQA1, and HLA-DQB1 genes. In particular, the HLA-A*03:01 allele is the most significantly associated with serum levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. "

Proteome profiling of home-sampled dried blood spots reveals proteins of SARS-CoV-2 infections.
Claudia Fredolini et al. Commun Med (Lond) 2024 4 (1) 55

From the abstract: "Our three studies display highly consistent variance of protein levels and share associations of proteins with sex (e.g., MMP3) and age (e.g., GDF-15). Studying seropositive (IgG+) and seronegative (IgG-) donors from the first pandemic wave reveals a network of proteins reflecting immunity, inflammation, coagulation, and stress response. Proteome analysis of volumetric self-sampled DBS facilitates precise analysis of clinically relevant proteins, including those secreted into the circulation or found on blood cells, augmenting previous COVID-19 reports with clinical blood collections. Our population surveys support the usefulness of DBS, underscoring the role of timing the sample collection to complement clinical and precision health monitoring initiatives. "

Viral genome sequencing to decipher in-hospital SARS-CoV-2 transmission events.
Elisabeth Esser et al. Sci Rep 2024 3 (1) 5768

From the abstract: "The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has highlighted the need to better define in-hospital transmissions, a need that extends to all other common infectious diseases encountered in clinical settings. To evaluate how whole viral genome sequencing can contribute to deciphering nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 transmission 926 SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes from 622 staff members and patients were collected. Bioinformatically defined transmission clusters inferred from viral genome sequencing were compared to those inferred from interview-based contact tracing. Clustering analysis of SARS-CoV-2 whole genome sequences can reveal cryptic transmission events missed by classical, interview-based contact tracing, helping to decipher in-hospital transmissions. These results, in line with other studies, advocate for viral genome sequencing as a pathogen transmission surveillance tool in hospitals. "

Disclaimer: Articles listed in the Public Health Genomics and Precision Health Knowledge Base are selected by the CDC Office of Public Health Genomics to provide current awareness of the literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the update, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.