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Last Posted: Feb 05, 2023
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Unlocking life-threatening COVID-19 through two types of inborn errors of type I IFNs.
Jean-Laurent Casanova et al. The Journal of clinical investigation 2023 1 (3)

Since 2003, rare inborn errors of human type I IFN immunity have been discovered, each underlying a few severe viral illnesses. Autoantibodies neutralizing type I IFNs due to rare inborn errors of autoimmune regulator (AIRE)–driven T cell tolerance were discovered in 2006, but not initially linked to any viral disease. These two lines of clinical investigation converged in 2020, with the discovery that inherited and/or autoimmune deficiencies of type I IFN immunity accounted for approximately 15%–20% of cases of critical COVID-19 pneumonia in unvaccinated individuals.

Estimation of Vaccine Effectiveness of CoronaVac and BNT162b2 Against Severe Outcomes Over Time Among Patients With SARS-CoV-2 Omicron.
Yuchen Wei et al. JAMA network open 2023 2 (2) e2254777

Does vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization and mortality due to the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant change over time? In this case-control study with 164?151 participants, the CoronaVac and BNT162b2 vaccines were generally estimated to be effective against severe outcomes due to SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infection, but protection among older individuals was more likely to wane 6 months after the second dose.

How quickly does COVID immunity fade? What scientists know.
Cassandra Willyard et al. Nature 2023 2

Three years into the pandemic, the immune systems of the vast majority of humans have learnt to recognize SARS-CoV-2 through vaccination, infection or, in many cases, both. But just how quickly do these types of immunity fade? New evidence suggests that ‘hybrid’ immunity, the result of both vaccination and a bout of COVID-19, can provide partial protection against reinfection for at least eight months. It also offers greater than 95% protection against severe disease or hospitalization for between six months and a year after an infection or vaccination, according to estimates from a meta-analysis. Immunity acquired by booster vaccination alone seems to fade somewhat faster.

Global generalisability of AI-driven COVID-19 vaccination policies: a cross-sectional observational study
R Awasthi et al, MEDRXIV, February 2, 2023

We found 16 important predictors of vaccine uptake using the Bayesian network and Markov Blanket approach. We found that the trust of the central government (Log-Odds 0.55[0.25, 0.84] (p= 0.0002)), Vaccination restriction for national and international travel (Log-Odds 0.4[0.14, 0.65] (p= 0.0034)) as the key determinants of Vaccine uptake.

Disclaimer: Articles listed in the Public Health Genomics and Precision Health Knowledge Base are selected by the CDC Office of Public Health Genomics to provide current awareness of the literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the update, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.