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Last Posted: May 20, 2024
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High-resolution African HLA resource uncovers HLA-DRB1 expression effects underlying vaccine response

From the abstract: " How human genetic variation contributes to vaccine effectiveness in infants is unclear, and data are limited on these relationships in populations with African ancestries. We undertook genetic analyses of vaccine antibody responses in infants from Uganda (n=1391), Burkina Faso (n=353) and South Africa (n=755), identifying associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and antibody response for five of eight tested antigens spanning pertussis, diphtheria and hepatitis B vaccines. In addition, through HLA typing 1,702 individuals from 11 populations of African ancestry derived predominantly from the 1000 Genomes Project, we constructed an imputation resource, fine-mapping class II HLA-DR and DQ associations explaining up to 10% of antibody response variance in our infant cohorts. "

Adverse Events After XBB.1.5-Containing COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines.
Niklas Worm Andersson et al. JAMA 2024 2

From the article: "The monovalent Omicron XBB.1.5–containing COVID-19 mRNA vaccines were authorized in the US and Europe for use in autumn and winter 2023-2024.In Denmark, the XBB.1.5-containing vaccines were recommended as a fifth COVID-19 vaccine dose to individuals aged 65 years and older beginning October 1, 2023. However, data to support safety evaluations are lacking. We investigated the association between the XBB.1.5-containing vaccine administered as a fifth COVID-19 vaccine dose and the risk of 28 adverse events. In this nationwide cohort of more than 1 million adults aged 65 years and older, no increased risk of 28 adverse events was observed following vaccination with a monovalent XBB.1.5-containing vaccine. "

Effectiveness of Bivalent mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines in Preventing SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children and Adolescents Aged 5 to 17 Years
LR Feldstein et al, JAMA, February 6, 2024

From the abstract: " What is the effectiveness of the bivalent COVID-19 vaccines among children and adolescents aged 5 to 17 years? In this prospective cohort study including 2959 participants aged 5 to 17 years, vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was 54.0% and vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic COVID-19 was 49.4%. During a period when the Omicron BA.4/5 sublineages were the predominant circulating variants, children and adolescents received protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptomatic COVID-19 from the bivalent COVID-19 vaccines compared with those who were unvaccinated or received only the monovalent COVID-19 vaccine."

Vaccines reduce the risk of long COVID in children
S Hall, Nature, December 20, 2023

From the article: " Vaccinated children are less likely than unvaccinated children to develop long COVID, the myriad of symptoms that can last for months to years following a SARS-CoV-2 infection, according to a forthcoming US study. “This is really important data,” says Jessica Snowden, a paediatric infectious-disease specialist at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock. This will demonstrate to families how important it is that we protect our kids, not just from acute COVID, but from the longer-term impacts of COVID as well.”

Disclaimer: Articles listed in the Public Health Genomics and Precision Health Knowledge Base are selected by the CDC Office of Public Health Genomics to provide current awareness of the literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the update, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.