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Last Posted: May 18, 2024
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Pharmacogenomics, Race, and Treatment Outcome in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia

From the abstract: " Can tailoring the intensity of induction therapy mitigate racial disparities in the outcome of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML)? Findings: In this comparative effectiveness analysis of 86 Black and 359 White patients with AML, Black patients exhibited a higher prevalence of low cytarabine pharmacogenomic 10–single-nucleotide variant (ACS10) scores, which were associated with an unfavorable outcome after initial treatment with low-dose cytarabine-based induction therapy. Augmentation of induction therapy was associated with improved outcome for patients with low ACS10 scores and with no disparity in outcome between Black patients and White patients."

Healthcare utilization and behavior changes following workplace genetic testing at a large U.S. healthcare system

From the abstract: " This study explored employee health behavior changes and healthcare utilization following workplace genetic testing (wGT). Wellness program-associated wGT seeks to improve employee health, but related health implications are unknown. Methods: Employees of a large U.S. healthcare system offering wGT (cancer, heart disease, and pharmacogenomics - PGx) were sent electronic surveys. Self-reported data from those who received test results were analyzed. Descriptive statistics characterized responses, while logistic regression analyses explored correlates of responses to wGT."

Nucleic acid-based drugs for patients with solid tumours.
Sebastian G Huayamares et al. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2024 4

From the abstract: "The treatment of patients with advanced-stage solid tumours typically involves a multimodality approach (including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy and/or immunotherapy), which is often ultimately ineffective. Nucleic acid-based drugs, either as monotherapies or in combination with standard-of-care therapies, are rapidly emerging as novel treatments capable of generating responses in otherwise refractory tumours. These therapies include those using viral vectors (also referred to as gene therapies), several of which have now been approved by regulatory agencies, and nanoparticles containing mRNAs and a range of other nucleotides. "

Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group (DPWG) guideline for the gene-drug interaction of CYP2C9, HLA-A and HLA-B with anti-epileptic drugs.
Lisanne E N Manson et al. Eur J Hum Genet 2024 4

From the abstract: "This guideline outlines the gene-drug interaction of CYP2C9 and HLA-B with phenytoin, HLA-A and HLA-B with carbamazepine and HLA-B with oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine. A systematic review was performed and pharmacotherapeutic recommendations were developed. For CYP2C9 intermediate and poor metabolisers, the DPWG recommends lowering the daily dose of phenytoin and adjust based on effect and serum concentration after 7–10 days. For HLA-B*15:02 carriers, the risk of severe cutaneous adverse events associated with phenytoin, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and lamotrigine is strongly increased. For carbamazepine, this risk is also increased in HLA-B*15:11 and HLA-A*31:01 carriers. For HLA-B*15:02, HLA-B*15:11 and HLA-A*31:01 positive patients, the DPWG recommends choosing an alternative anti-epileptic drug. "

Disclaimer: Articles listed in the Public Health Genomics and Precision Health Knowledge Base are selected by the CDC Office of Public Health Genomics to provide current awareness of the literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the update, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.