Robust airway microbiome signatures in acute respiratory failure and hospital-acquired pneumonia.
Emmanuel Montassier et al. Nat Med 2023 11
From the abstract: "Respiratory microbial dysbiosis is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in critically ill patients. However, we lack reproducible respiratory microbiome signatures that can increase our understanding of these conditions and potential treatments. Here, we analyze 16S rRNA sequencing data from 2,177 respiratory samples collected from 1,029 critically ill patients (21.7% with ARDS and 26.3% with HAP) and 327 healthy controls. Using machine learning models, we identified clinically informative, three- and four-factor signatures that predicted ARDS, HAP and prolonged mechanical ventilation with relatively high accuracy (area under the curve of 0.751, 0.72 and 0.727, respectively). "
Bacterial SNPs in the human gut microbiome associate with host BMI.
Liron Zahavi et al. Nat Med 2023 11
From the abstract: " We recruited and obtained gut metagenomic samples from a cohort of 7,190 healthy individuals and discovered 1,358 statistically significant associations between a bacterial SNP and host body mass index (BMI), from which we distilled 40 independent associations. Most of these associations were unexplained by diet, medications or physical exercise, and 17 replicated in a geographically independent cohort. We uncovered BMI-associated SNPs in 27 bacterial species, and 12 of them showed no association by standard relative abundance analysis. "
Gut Microbiome in Patients With Early-Stage and Late-Stage Melanoma
RG Witt et al, JAMA Dermatology, August 30, 2023
From the abstract: "Do patients with melanoma have different fecal microbiota profiles than individuals without melanoma, and does the fecal microbiome differ based on disease stage? In this case-control study of 228 participants, patients with melanoma had a different structure of microbiome, with lower abundance of multiple beneficial commensals, compared with control participants. The gut microbiota of patients with early-stage melanoma was characterized by higher alpha diversity and a distinct microbiome structure compared with those with late-stage melanoma."
Saliva microbiome in relation to SARS-CoV-2 infection in a prospective cohort of healthy US adults
AJS Armstrong et al, Ebiomedicine, July 2023
The clinical outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection vary in severity, potentially influenced by the resident human microbiota. There is limited consensus on conserved microbiome changes in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, with many studies focusing on severely ill individuals. This study aimed to assess the variation in the upper respiratory tract microbiome using saliva specimens in a cohort of individuals with primarily mild to moderate disease. The salivary microbiome remained stable in unexposed individuals over the six-month study period, as evidenced by all measured metrics. Similarly, participants with mild to moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection showed microbiome stability throughout and after their infection.