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Last Posted: May 30, 2023
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Gut microbial metabolism of 5-ASA diminishes its clinical efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease.
Raaj S Mehta et al. Nature medicine 2023 2

We developed a multi-omics workflow combining gut microbiome metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metabolomics from the longitudinal IBDMDB cohort of 132 controls and patients with IBD. This associated 12 previously uncharacterized microbial acetyltransferases with 5-ASA inactivation, belonging to two protein superfamilies: thiolases and acyl-CoA N-acyltransferases. A cross-sectional analysis within the discovery cohort and subsequent prospective validation within the independent SPARC IBD cohort (n?=?208) found three of these microbial thiolases and one acyl-CoA N-acyltransferase to be epidemiologically associated with an increased risk of treatment failure among 5-ASA users.

Combining pathogen and host metagenomics for a better sepsis diagnostic.
Gant Vanya et al. Nature microbiology 2022 10 (11) 1713-1714

Sepsis is defined in the clinic as an assemblage of various failing physiology and laboratory markers of organ function triggered by infection. Efforts have been made to provide tighter definitions and criteria for sepsis to achieve better and more focused clinical care, research and epidemiology. A recent study shows that combining simultaneous host and pathogen metagenomic profiles in a cohort of hospitalized and critically ill patients allows for more accurate diagnosis of sepsis.

Integrated host-microbe plasma metagenomics for sepsis diagnosis in a prospective cohort of critically ill adults.
Kalantar Katrina L et al. Nature microbiology 2022 10

We combined host and microbial features to develop an integrated sepsis diagnostic model that identified 99% of microbiologically confirmed sepsis cases, and predicted sepsis in 74% of suspected and 89% of indeterminate sepsis cases. We suggest that integrating host transcriptional profiling and broad-range metagenomic pathogen detection from nucleic acid is a promising tool for sepsis diagnosis.

The Current Status of Next-Generation Sequencing for Diagnosis of Central Nervous System Infections
MR Wilson et al, JAMA Neurology, August 22, 2022

The prime directive in diagnosing neuroinfectious disease is to answer 3 deceptively simple questions: (1) Is the patient infected? (2) If so, with what? (3) How do we treat the infection? Our ability to answer the first 2 questions has been substantially improved by the emergence of multiplex approaches to diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infections, as exemplified by metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS).

Disclaimer: Articles listed in the Public Health Genomics and Precision Health Knowledge Base are selected by the CDC Office of Public Health Genomics to provide current awareness of the literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the update, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.