Distilling causality between physical activity traits and obesity via Mendelian randomization.
Zhe Wang et al. Commun Med (Lond) 2023 11 (1) 173
From the abstract: "Whether obesity is a cause or consequence of low physical activity levels and more sedentary time has not yet been fully elucidated. Better instrumental variables and a more thorough consideration of potential confounding variables that may influence the causal inference between physical activity and obesity are needed. This MR study highlights the beneficial effect of education on improved health and suggest that a more physically active lifestyle leads to lower BMI, while sedentary behavior is a consequence of higher BMI."
Mendelian Randomization as a Tool for Cardiovascular Research: A Review.
Michael G Levin et al. JAMA Cardiol 2023 11
From the abstract: "Mendelian randomization (MR) is a statistical approach that has become increasingly popular in the field of cardiovascular disease research. It offers a way to infer potentially causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes using observational data, which is particularly important in cases where randomized clinical trials are not feasible or ethical. With the growing availability of large genetic data sets, MR has become a powerful and accessible tool for studying the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. "
Converging evidence from exome sequencing and common variants implicates target genes for osteoporosis
S Zhou et al, Nature Genetics, August 9, 2023
We undertook a large-scale multiancestry exome-wide association study for estimated bone mineral density, which showed that the burden of rare coding alleles in 19 genes was associated with estimated bone mineral density (P<3.6×10–7). These genes were highly enriched for a set of known causal genes for osteoporosis (65-fold; P=2.5×10–5). Exome-wide significant genes had 96-fold increased odds of being the top ranked effector gene at a given GWAS locus (P=1.8×10–10). By integrating proteomics Mendelian randomization evidence, we prioritized CD109 (cluster of differentiation 109) as a gene for which heterozygous loss of function is associated with higher bone density.
Association of Longer Leukocyte Telomere Length With Cardiac Size, Function, and Heart Failure
N Aung et al, JAMA Cardiology, July 26, 2023
Is leukocyte telomere length (LTL) associated with alterations in cardiovascular structure and function? In this cross-sectional study including 40 459 UK Biobank participants, longer LTL was associated with higher left ventricular mass, larger ventricular and atrial sizes, and higher stroke volumes. Mendelian randomization analysis demonstrated a potential causal genetic association between LTL and left ventricular mass, ventricular size, and left ventricular stroke volume, and longer LTL was associated with a lower risk of incident heart failure after accounting for potential confounders.