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Last Posted: May 04, 2023
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Potential utility of risk stratification for multicancer screening with liquid biopsy tests
ES Kim et al, NPJ Precision Oncology, April 22, 2023

We develop and validate sex-specific pan-cancer risk scores (PCRSs), defined by the combination of body mass index, smoking, family history of cancers, and cancer-specific polygenic risk scores (PRSs), to predict the absolute risk of developing at least one of the many common cancer types. We demonstrate the added value of PRSs in improving the predictive performance of the risk factors only model and project the positive and negative predictive values for two promising multicancer screening tests across risk strata defined by age and PCRS.

Early Detection of Molecular Residual Disease and Risk Stratification for Stage I to III Colorectal Cancer via Circulating Tumor DNA Methylation.
Shaobo Mo et al. JAMA Oncol

Are longitudinal changes in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) methylation effective in monitoring disease progression from molecular residual disease to recurrence? In this cohort study of 299 patients with colorectal cancer, circulating tumor DNA status was evaluated with 6 DNA methylation markers. The presence of ctDNA was strongly associated with recurrence before and after surgery, after adjuvant chemotherapy, and during longitudinal monitoring.

Liquid Biopsy Assessment of Molecular Residual Disease in Localized Colorectal Cancer: Is It Ready for Prime Time?
Juan Ruiz-Bañobre et al. JAMA Oncol

Over the last few years, the potential of liquid biopsy, specifically the detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in blood from patients with advanced and localized tumors, has emerged as a promising strategy to assist in the clinical management of patients with cancer. In the advanced setting, ctDNA is already validated and used in routine clinical practice to identify clinically actionable genomic alterations. In the localized setting, different observational studies involving patients with solid tumors have confirmed a very high risk of recurrence when ctDNA is detected after therapy with curative intent, introducing the concept of molecular residual disease in managing solid tumors.

Utilization of Circulating Tumor Cells in the Management of Solid Tumors
PC Kumiali et al, J Per Med, April 20., 2023

CTCs may play significant roles in cancer screening, diagnosis, treatment navigation, including prognostication and precision medicine, and surveillance. In cancer screening, capturing and evaluating CTCs from peripheral blood could be a strategy to detect cancer at its earliest stage. Cancer diagnosis using liquid biopsy could also have tremendous benefits. Full utilization of CTCs in the clinical management of malignancies may be feasible in the near future; however, several challenges still exist.

Disclaimer: Articles listed in the Public Health Genomics and Precision Health Knowledge Base are selected by the CDC Office of Public Health Genomics to provide current awareness of the literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the update, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.