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Last Posted: May 23, 2024
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Bird flu virus has been spreading in US cows for months, RNA reveals Genomic analysis suggests that the outbreak probably began in December or January, but a shortage of data is hampering efforts to pin down the source.

From the article: "A strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza has been silently spreading in US cattle for months, according to preliminary analysis of genomic data. The outbreak is likely to have begun when the virus jumped from an infected bird into a cow, probably around late December or early January. This implies a protracted, undetected spread of the virus — suggesting that more cattle across the United States, and even in neighbouring regions, could have been infected with avian influenza than currently reported. These conclusions are based on swift and summary analyses by researchers, following a dump of genomic data by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) into a public repository earlier this week. "

Notes from the Field: The National Wastewater Surveillance System's Centers of Excellence Contributions to Public Health Action During the Respiratory Virus Season - Four U.S. Jurisdictions, 2022-23.
Diana Valencia et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2023 11 (48) 1309-1312

From the article: "NWSS Centers of Excellence have reported correlation between WWS data and clinical surveillance with WWS allowing localized, timely coverage, and in some situations, valuable lead time notification. In Wisconsin, WWS detected increases in influenza and RSV weeks before increases in related emergency department visits were observed. NWSS data, together with clinical surveillance data, have guided jurisdictional partner decisions regarding allocation of resources, deployment of vaccination clinics, updating clinical guidance, and sending respiratory disease notifications and alerts when trends exceed baseline thresholds. During the 2022–23 respiratory disease season, NWSS Centers of Excellence translated WWS data into real-time public health action for multiple respiratory pathogens, highlighting the contribution of WWS in monitoring disease circulation and helping guide public health response. "

Evolutionary implications of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination for the future design of vaccination strategies.
Igor M Rouzine et al. Commun Med (Lond) 2023 6 (1) 86

Once the first SARS-CoV-2 vaccine became available, mass vaccination was the main pillar of the public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic. It was very effective in reducing hospitalizations and deaths. Here, we discuss the possibility that mass vaccination might accelerate SARS-CoV-2 evolution in antibody-binding regions compared to natural infection at the population level. Using the evidence of strong genetic variation in antibody-binding regions and taking advantage of the similarity between the envelope proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza, we assume that immune selection pressure acting on these regions of the two viruses is similar.

Safety and immunogenicity of a phase 1/2 randomized clinical trial of a quadrivalent, mRNA-based seasonal influenza vaccine (mRNA-1010) in healthy adults: interim analysis.
Ivan T Lee et al. Nat Commun 2023 6 (1) 3631

Despite vaccine availability, influenza remains a substantial global public health concern. Here, we report interim findings on the primary and secondary objectives of the safety, reactogenicity, and humoral immunogenicity of a quadrivalent messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine against seasonal influenza, mRNA-1010, from the first 2 parts of a 3-part, first-in-human, phase 1/2 clinical trial in healthy adults aged =18 years.

Disclaimer: Articles listed in the Public Health Genomics and Precision Health Knowledge Base are selected by the CDC Office of Public Health Genomics to provide current awareness of the literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the update, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.