Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Search PHGKB:

Last Posted: Jun 05, 2024
spot light Highlights

Identification of dynamic microbiota signatures in patients with melanoma receiving ICIs: opportunities and challenges.
Saman Maleki Vareki et al. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2024 3

From the abstract: "The composition of the gut microbiota has emerged as a tumour-extrinsic factor that modulates response to immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), although the lack of consistency in microbiota signatures across studies has limited their value as reliable biomarkers. Herein, we discuss a recent study in which longitudinal microbiome profiling identified several taxa that are persistently enriched in patients with melanoma and a favourable response to ICIs. "

Polygenic risk scores, radiation treatment exposures and subsequent cancer risk in childhood cancer survivors.
Todd M Gibson et al. Nat Med 2024 3

From the abstract: "Survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk for subsequent cancers attributable to the late effects of radiotherapy and other treatment exposures; thus, further understanding of the impact of genetic predisposition on risk is needed. Combining genotype data for 11,220 5-year survivors from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and the St Jude Lifetime Cohort, we found that cancer-specific polygenic risk scores (PRSs) derived from general population, genome-wide association study, cancer loci identified survivors of European ancestry at increased risk of subsequent basal cell carcinoma (odds ratio per s.d. of the PRS: OR?=?1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.29–1.46), female breast cancer (OR?=?1.42, 95% CI?=?1.27–1.58), thyroid cancer (OR?=?1.48, 95% CI?=?1.31–1.67), squamous cell carcinoma (OR?=?1.20, 95% CI?=?1.00–1.44) and melanoma (OR?=?1.60, 95% CI?=?1.31–1.96) "

Personalized anti-cancer vaccine combining mRNA and immunotherapy tested in melanoma trial.
Thiago Carvalho et al. Nat Med 2023 9 (10) 2379-2380

From the article: "An estimated 325,000 new cases of malignant melanoma were diagnosed worldwide in 2020. The clinical deployment of immune checkpoint inhibitors over the past 12 years has revolutionized melanoma treatment, and the 5-year survival rate in the USA now approaches 95%. However, the frequency of melanoma is increasing, particularly in lighter-skinned people, and for the minority of patients diagnosed with metastatic disease, the 5-year survival rate is 35%, although the introduction of immunotherapy has doubled the median survival time for these patients. "

Long-term cost-effectiveness of a melanoma prevention program using genomic risk information compared with standard prevention advice in Australia
CK Law et al, Genetics in Medicine, August 30, 2023

From the abstract: "Evidence indicates a melanoma prevention program using personalized genomic risk provision and genetic counselling, can impact prevention behaviors, including reducing sunburns in adults with no melanoma history. This analysis evaluated its longer-term cost-effectiveness from an Australian health system perspective. We found that genomic risk provision targeted to high-traditional melanoma risk individuals is likely a cost-effective strategy for reducing sunburns and will likely prevent future melanomas and keratinocyte carcinomas."

Disclaimer: Articles listed in the Public Health Genomics and Precision Health Knowledge Base are selected by the CDC Office of Public Health Genomics to provide current awareness of the literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the update, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.