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Last Posted: Nov 21, 2023
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Personalized anti-cancer vaccine combining mRNA and immunotherapy tested in melanoma trial.
Thiago Carvalho et al. Nat Med 2023 9 (10) 2379-2380

From the article: "An estimated 325,000 new cases of malignant melanoma were diagnosed worldwide in 2020. The clinical deployment of immune checkpoint inhibitors over the past 12 years has revolutionized melanoma treatment, and the 5-year survival rate in the USA now approaches 95%. However, the frequency of melanoma is increasing, particularly in lighter-skinned people, and for the minority of patients diagnosed with metastatic disease, the 5-year survival rate is 35%, although the introduction of immunotherapy has doubled the median survival time for these patients. "

Long-term cost-effectiveness of a melanoma prevention program using genomic risk information compared with standard prevention advice in Australia
CK Law et al, Genetics in Medicine, August 30, 2023

From the abstract: "Evidence indicates a melanoma prevention program using personalized genomic risk provision and genetic counselling, can impact prevention behaviors, including reducing sunburns in adults with no melanoma history. This analysis evaluated its longer-term cost-effectiveness from an Australian health system perspective. We found that genomic risk provision targeted to high-traditional melanoma risk individuals is likely a cost-effective strategy for reducing sunburns and will likely prevent future melanomas and keratinocyte carcinomas."

Gut Microbiome in Patients With Early-Stage and Late-Stage Melanoma
RG Witt et al, JAMA Dermatology, August 30, 2023

From the abstract: "Do patients with melanoma have different fecal microbiota profiles than individuals without melanoma, and does the fecal microbiome differ based on disease stage? In this case-control study of 228 participants, patients with melanoma had a different structure of microbiome, with lower abundance of multiple beneficial commensals, compared with control participants. The gut microbiota of patients with early-stage melanoma was characterized by higher alpha diversity and a distinct microbiome structure compared with those with late-stage melanoma."

Molecular Features of Resected Melanoma Brain Metastases, Clinical Outcomes, and Responses to Immunotherapy
HN Vasedevan et al, JAMA Network Open, August 17, 2023

What is the translational importance of alteration status in the treatment of melanoma brain metastases? In this cohort study of 94 patients with resected melanoma brain metastases that underwent targeted DNA sequencing, BRAF V600E variant lesions were associated with worse intracranial progression-free survival and overall survival. Single-cell sequencing showed that BRAF V600E variant brain metastases harbored fewer immune cell types; immunotherapy was associated with improved outcomes for patients with BRAF wildtype but not BRAF V600E variant brain metastases.

Disclaimer: Articles listed in the Public Health Genomics and Precision Health Knowledge Base are selected by the CDC Office of Public Health Genomics to provide current awareness of the literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the update, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.