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Last Posted: Mar 20, 2023
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Evaluation of polygenic risk scores to differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Muhammad Shoaib et al. Genetic epidemiology 2023 2

We evaluated PRS models for T1D and T2D in European genetic ancestry participants from the UK Biobank (UKB) and then in the Michigan Genomics Initiative (MGI). Specifically, we investigated the utility of T1D and T2D PRS to discriminate between T1D, T2D, and controls in unrelated UKB individuals of European ancestry. We derived PRS models using external non-UKB GWAS. The T1D PRS model with the best discrimination between T1D cases and controls (area under the receiver operator curve [AUC]?=?0.805) also yielded the best discrimination of T1D from T2D cases in the UKB (AUC?=?0.792) and separation in MGI (AUC?=?0.686).

Causal factors underlying diabetes risk informed by Mendelian randomisation analysis: evidence, opportunities and challenges.
Shuai Yuan et al. Diabetologia 2023 2

Diabetes and its complications cause a heavy disease burden globally. Identifying exposures, risk factors and molecular processes causally associated with the development of diabetes can provide important evidence bases for disease prevention and spur novel therapeutic strategies. Mendelian randomisation (MR), an epidemiological approach that uses genetic instruments to infer causal associations between an exposure and an outcome, can be leveraged to complement evidence from observational and clinical studies. This narrative review aims to summarize the evidence on potential causal risk factors for diabetes by integrating published MR studies on type 1 and 2 diabetes.

Beyond genetic screening-functionality-based precision medicine in monogenic obesity.
Antje Körner et al. The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology 2023 2 (3) 143-144

Most genes causing monogenic obesity are implicated in the central energy regulatory circuits of the leptin-melanocortin pathway. Even though monogenic obesity is still a rare disease entity, identifying these patients is important since there are now promising treatment options such as setmelanotide, a melanocortin receptor agonist, which was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency

Analysis of Pregnancy Complications and Epigenetic Gestational Age of Newborns
CL Acosta et al, JAMA Network Open, February 24, 2023

Is exposure to gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, or preeclampsia associated with biological gestational age, measured via epigenetic clocks, in newborns? In this national multisite cohort study of 1801 children, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes were significantly associated with decelerated gestational age in exposed offspring at birth vs unexposed offspring (ie, they were estimated to be biologically younger than their chronological gestational age), and these associations were more pronounced in female offspring. No associations were observed for gestational hypertension and accelerated or decelerated biological age.

Disclaimer: Articles listed in the Public Health Genomics and Precision Health Knowledge Base are selected by the CDC Office of Public Health Genomics to provide current awareness of the literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the update, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.