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Hot Topics of the Day are picked by experts to capture the latest information and publications on public health genomics and precision health for various diseases and health topics. Sources include published scientific literature, reviews, blogs and popular press articles.

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182 hot topic(s) found with the query "Cancer screening"

The promise of AI in personalized breast cancer screening: are we there yet?
Despina Kontos et al. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2024 3 (Posted: Mar 21, 2024 7AM)

From the abstract: " The benefits and potential harms of mammography-based screening for breast cancer are often a matter of debate. Here, I discuss the promises and limitations of a recent study that tested an artificial intelligence-based tool for the detection of breast cancer in digital mammograms in a large, prospective screening setting."

Cell-free DNA for Colorectal Cancer Screening.
Y M Dennis Lo et al. N Engl J Med 2024 3 (11) 1047-1050 (Posted: Mar 14, 2024 10AM)

From the article: "A recent study demonstrated the feasibility of using plasma cfDNA to screen for colorectal cancer, but the relatively low sensitivity for the detection of advanced precancerous lesions is a limitation. Moreover, colonoscopy not only detects such lesions with high sensitivity but also permits their immediate removal. The noninvasiveness (relatively speaking) of the plasma cfDNA assay, though, is a feature that seems likely to result in greater uptake than colonoscopy."

Next-Generation Multitarget Stool DNA Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening.
Thomas F Imperiale et al. N Engl J Med 2024 3 (11) 984-993 (Posted: Mar 14, 2024 10AM)

From the abstract: "In a prospective study, we evaluated a next-generation multitarget stool DNA test in asymptomatic adults 40 years of age or older who were undergoing screening colonoscopy. The next-generation multitarget stool DNA test showed higher sensitivity for colorectal cancer and advanced precancerous lesions than FIT but also showed lower specificity. "

Improving Noninvasive Colorectal Cancer Screening.
John M Carethers et al. N Engl J Med 2024 3 (11) 1045-1046 (Posted: Mar 14, 2024 10AM)

From the article: "Screening for colorectal cancer saves lives. Screening tests have evolved to include stool-based, endoscopic and image-based, and blood-based methods, with minimal thresholds for sensitivity and specificity for colorectal cancer set by the baseline characteristics of FIT. Although multiple tests have been developed over time and vary in cost-effectiveness for colorectal cancer screening, the best screening test is the one that gets completed by the patient. Most of the recommended tests, including the two newer tests assessed in the studies now published in the Journal, improve on the sensitivity and approach the specificity of FIT. "

A Cell-free DNA Blood-Based Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening.
Daniel C Chung et al. N Engl J Med 2024 3 (11) 973-983 (Posted: Mar 14, 2024 10AM)

From the abstract: "We assessed the performance characteristics of a cell-free DNA (cfDNA) blood-based test in a population eligible for colorectal cancer screening. The coprimary outcomes were sensitivity for colorectal cancer and specificity for advanced neoplasia (colorectal cancer or advanced precancerous lesions) relative to screening colonoscopy. The secondary outcome was sensitivity to detect advanced precancerous lesions. This cfDNA blood-based test had 83% sensitivity for colorectal cancer, 90% specificity for advanced neoplasia, and 13% sensitivity for advanced precancerous lesions."

Primary Care Provider Receptivity to Multi-Cancer Early Detection Test Use in Cancer Screening
CV Chambers et al, JPM, November 2023 (Posted: Nov 30, 2023 9AM)

From the abstract: "Multi-cancer early detection tests (MCEDs) are blood-based tests that detect biomarkers released or induced by cancer cells. If MCED tests are shown to be safe and effective in cancer screening, they are likely to be ordered and managed in primary care. To understand primary care providers’ support for and concerns about the implementation and management of MCED testing, the research team developed a cross-sectional survey that was sent to 939 primary care providers (physicians, residents/fellows, and advanced practice providers) in a large academic health system. "

Multitarget Stool RNA Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening.
Erica K Barnell et al. JAMA 2023 10 (Posted: Oct 24, 2023 2PM)

From the abstract: " What is the performance of the novel multitarget stool RNA (mt-sRNA) test (ColoSense) for individuals 45 years and older undergoing colorectal cancer screening? A pivotal prospective, cross-sectional clinical trial comprising 8920 eligible participants was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the mt-sRNA test compared with a colonoscopy. The sensitivity of the mt-sRNA test for detecting colorectal cancer was 94%, the sensitivity for detecting advanced adenomas was 46%, and the specificity for no lesions on colonoscopy was 88%."

“I just wanted more”: Hereditary cancer syndromes patients’ perspectives on the utility of circulating tumour DNA testing for cancer screening
EA Wauran et al, EJHG, October 11, 2023 (Posted: Oct 12, 2023 9AM)

From the abstract: "Thirty HCS patients were interviewed (n?=?19 women, age range 20s-70s, n?=?25 were white). Participants were highly concerned about developing cancers, particularly those without reliable screening options for early detection. They “just wanted more” than their current screening strategies. Participants were enthusiastic about ctDNA’s potential to be comprehensive (detect multiple cancers), predictive (detect cancers early) and tailored (lead to personalized clinical management). Participants also acknowledged ctDNA’s potential limitations, including false positives/negatives risks and experiencing additional anxiety. "

Blood-based tests for multicancer early detection (PATHFINDER): a prospective cohort study
D Shrag et al. The Lancet, October 7, 2023 (Posted: Oct 06, 2023 7AM)

From the abstract: "Multicancer early detection (MCED) blood tests can detect a cancer signal from circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA). PATHFINDER was a prospective cohort study investigating the feasibility of MCED testing for cancer screening. In this prospective cohort study done in oncology and primary care outpatient clinics at seven US health networks, a convenience sample of adults aged 50 years or older without signs or symptoms of cancer consented to MCED testing. The study supports the feasibility of MCED screening for cancer and underscores the need for further research investigating the test's clinical utility. "

Cascade testing for hereditary cancer: comprehensive multigene panels identify unexpected actionable findings in relatives.
Brandie Heald et al. J Natl Cancer Inst 2023 9 (Posted: Oct 02, 2023 11AM)

From the abstract: "Cascade testing using multigene panels was performed in 3,696 relatives of 7,433 probands. Unexpected PGVs were identified in 230 (6.2%) relatives, including 144 who were negative for the familial PGV but positive for a PGV in a different gene than the proband and 74 who tested positive for the familial PGV and had an additional PGV in a different gene than the proband. Of the relatives with unexpected PGVs, 36.3% would have qualified for different or additional cancer screening recommendations. Limiting cascade testing to only the familial PGV would have resulted in missed, actionable findings for a subset of relatives."

Emerging cancer risks in BRCA2 pathogenic germline variant carriers.
Patrick R Benusiglio et al. Eur J Hum Genet 2023 9 (Posted: Sep 28, 2023 11AM)

From the paper: "Carriers of pathogenic germline variants (PGV) in BRCA2 could soon be offered gastric cancer screening using gastroscopy. In the longer term, some might even take part in lung cancer screening programs. Indeed, while the risks of breast, ovarian, pancreatic and prostate cancer have been documented for years, recent data show an increased risk of gastric cancer, and suggest an association with lung cancer. This article focuses specifically on BRCA2, while sidelining its sister gene BRCA1, as evidence for a broad cancer spectrum is much stronger for the former."

Factors associated with adherence to BRCA1/2 mutation testing after oncogenetic counseling in long-surviving patients with a previous diagnosis of breast or ovarian cancer.
Silvia Actis et al. J Community Genet 2023 9 (Posted: Sep 21, 2023 2PM)

From the abstract: "We analyzed socio-demographic and psychological parameters associated with the decision to undergo BRCA1/2 genetic testing or the reasons behind the withdrawal. Thirty-nine patients underwent BRCA1/2 genetic testing. Patients who accept the genetic test communicate more easily with family members than those who refuse. Factors associated with test refusal are having a long-term partner and having a negative perception of life. There is a trend, although not statistically significant, toward younger age at cancer diagnosis, more likely to participate in cancer screening programs (71.8% vs. 45.5%), and more likely to have daughters (63.3% vs. 37.5%) in the group that accepted the test. "

Rebooting cancer screening with artificial intelligence
S Adams et al, Lancet, August 5, 2023 (Posted: Aug 07, 2023 10AM)

Cancer screening typically relies on a reductionist, all-comer population approach, with screening eligibility based predominantly on age. This approach does not account for the multidimensional complexity of each individual, including a person's biological, physiological, and environmental data, and can miss those who may be at high risk of disease. As the total number of cancer cases continues to increase, and at younger ages, a rebooting of cancer screening is needed.

Clinical trials assess a precision-medicine approach to cancer screening
S Moutinho, Nature Medicine, July 18, 2023 (Posted: Jul 18, 2023 2PM)

For more than three decades, mass-population breast-cancer screening worldwide has been based solely on one risk factor: age. Most programs and guidelines recommend mammography every 2 or 3 years for women 40–50 years of age (depending on the country) up to 74 years of age — regardless of other risk factors. Researchers believe they can improve screening by stratifying women according to their risk, on the basis of genetic factors, personal and familial history, and offering them a more personalized screening routine.

Genetic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility.
Zsofia K Stadler et al. JAMA 2023 6 (Posted: Jun 06, 2023 8AM)

In patients diagnosed with cancer, testing for gene variants associated with increased cancer susceptibility is important for at least 2 reasons. First, testing informs the most optimal treatment for a patient with cancer. Second, testing helps identify relatives who may have inherited genes that increase their cancer susceptibility. Identifying these genes could improve outcomes by increasing cancer screening and risk-reducing measures such as preventive surgery. With the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies, genetic testing for cancer risk has shifted from sequential, single-gene testing to multiple-panel genetic testing using blood or saliva.

Genetically adjusted PSA levels for prostate cancer screening.
Linda Kachuri et al. Nat Med 2023 6 (Posted: Jun 02, 2023 6AM)

In this study, we discovered 128 genome-wide significant associations (P?<?5?×?10-8) in a multi-ancestry meta-analysis of 95,768 men and developed a PSA polygenic score (PGSPSA) that explains 9.61% of constitutive PSA variation. Genetically adjusted PSA was more predictive of aggressive prostate cancer (odds ratio (OR)?=?3.44, P?=?6.2?×?10-14, area under the curve (AUC)?=?0.755) than unadjusted PSA (OR?=?3.31, P?=?1.1?×?10-12, AUC?=?0.738) in 106 cases and 23,667 controls. Compared to a prostate cancer PGS alone (AUC?=?0.712), including genetically adjusted PSA improved detection of aggressive disease (AUC?=?0.786, P?=?7.2?×?10-4). Our findings highlight the potential utility of incorporating PGS for personalized biomarkers in prostate cancer screening.

Utility of polygenic risk scores in UK cancer screening: a modelling analysis
C Huntley et al, Lancet Oncology, May 2023 (Posted: May 12, 2023 6AM)

It is proposed that, through restriction to individuals delineated as high risk, polygenic risk scores (PRSs) might enable more efficient targeting of existing cancer screening programmes and enable extension into new age ranges and disease types. To address this proposition, we present an overview of the performance of PRS tools (ie, models and sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms) alongside harms and benefits of PRS-stratified cancer screening for eight example cancers (breast, prostate, colorectal, pancreas, ovary, kidney, lung, and testicular cancer).

The "Scope" of Colorectal Cancer Screening in Lynch Syndrome: Is There an Optimal Interval?
Leah H Biller et al. J Natl Cancer Inst 2023 5 (Posted: May 05, 2023 9AM)

Across all genes related to Lynch syndrome, colonoscopy screening reduces the risk of CRC and improves overall survival among LS carriers, and remains the mainstay of current risk reduction recommendations. What remains less clear are both the optimal age at which to start screening and the best interval between colonoscopy screenings for LS carriers, such that many international professional society guidelines vary with respect to these recommendations.

Utilization of Circulating Tumor Cells in the Management of Solid Tumors
PC Kumiali et al, J Per Med, April 20., 2023 (Posted: Apr 20, 2023 10AM)

CTCs may play significant roles in cancer screening, diagnosis, treatment navigation, including prognostication and precision medicine, and surveillance. In cancer screening, capturing and evaluating CTCs from peripheral blood could be a strategy to detect cancer at its earliest stage. Cancer diagnosis using liquid biopsy could also have tremendous benefits. Full utilization of CTCs in the clinical management of malignancies may be feasible in the near future; however, several challenges still exist.

Leveraging Artificial Intelligence to Improve Accuracy of Lung Cancer Screening
NCI Blog, December 16, 2022 Brand (Posted: Dec 19, 2022 10AM)

Artificial intelligence (AI) has been used to discriminate between normal and precancer/cancer in a number of settings. In the past decade, significant progress has been made in computer-aided detection and diagnosis, leading to several Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved types of software. Recent efforts are focused on deep learning, a subset of AI that uses artificial neural networks to learn from huge amounts of data. If the trained neural network out-performs human expert interpretation, it is poised to transform medical imaging and diagnostics.

Factors Likely to Affect the Uptake of Genomic Approaches to Cancer Screening in Primary Care: A Scoping Review
KV Davis et al, J Per Med, December 10, 2022 (Posted: Dec 10, 2022 7AM)

Six articles focused on patient perceptions about testing for a single cancer (colorectal), and 1 reported on patient views related to testing for multiple cancers. Factors favoring this type of testing included its non-invasiveness, and the perceived safety, convenience, and effectiveness of testing. There is a dearth of information in the literature on primary care provider perceptions about liquid biopsy and MCED testing. The limited information on patient perceptions suggests that they are receptive to such tests.

Development of a Molecular Blood-Based Immune Signature Classifier as Biomarker for Risks Assessment in Lung Cancer Screening.
Fortunato Orazio et al. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2022 9 (11) 2020-2029 (Posted: Nov 13, 2022 6AM)

Monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC), polymorphonuclear MDSC, intermediate monocytes and CD8+PD-1+ T cells distinguished patients with lung cancer from controls with AUCs values of 0.94/0.72/0.88 in the training, validation, and lung cancer specificity set, respectively. AUCs raised up to 1.00/0.84/0.92 in subgroup analysis considering only MSC-negative subjects. A 14-immune genes expression signature distinguished patients from controls with AUC values of 0.76 in the validation set and 0.83 in MSC-negative subjects.

Cancer, screening, and polygenic scores
C Babb de Villiers, PHG Foundation blog, November 1, 2022 (Posted: Nov 03, 2022 11AM)

The use of comprehensive risk prediction models that include genetic, environmental and lifestyle risk factors, are being trialled for stratified screening programmes. The results from these trials are imminent in the next few years and when they arrive they will provide evidence on whether risk prediction using polygenic scores can improve risk prediction for cancer and contribute towards stratified screening.

Breast Cancer Awareness Month 2022 Digital Media Toolkit
CDC, October 5, 2022 Brand (Posted: Oct 11, 2022 2PM)

In support of the national Breast Cancer Awareness Month October 2022 observance, the CDC Division of Cancer Prevention and Control will focus messaging and activities on finding cancer early, when it’s easiest to treat. Content and activities will be structured to empower people to take the steps needed to find breast cancer early, when it’s easiest to treat by: Knowing your risk for breast cancer; Knowing how you can lower your risk of breast cancer Knowing your family history; Knowing when to get a breast cancer screening; Knowing where to get a breast cancer screening

Two Factors to ID Men at Highest Risk for Prostate Cancer Death
R Nelson, Medscape, September 2022 (Posted: Oct 03, 2022 7AM)

A family history of prostate cancer has long been one of the few universally accepted risk factors for the disease. New findings now provide evidence that risk stratification based on family history and inherited polygenic risk can identify men at highest risk of dying from the disease before age 75. Men in the upper quartile of polygenic risk score or who had a family history of prostate or breast cancer accounted for close to 100% of prostate cancer deaths by age 75. This strategy can also identify men at low risk for prostate cancer, potentially sparing them from intensive prostate cancer screening.

Polygenic risk scores and risk-stratified breast cancer screening: Familiarity and perspectives of health care professionals.
Lapointe Julie et al. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 2022 9 (Posted: Sep 05, 2022 6AM)

A total of 593 professionals completed more than 2 items and 453 responded to all questions. A total of 432 (94%) participants were female, 103 (22%) were physicians, and 323 (70%) were nurses. Participants reported to be unfamiliar with (20%), very unfamiliar (32%) with, or did not know (41%) the concept of PRS. Most participants reported not having enough knowledge about risk-stratified BC screening (61%) and that they would require more training (77%).

UK National Screening Committee's approach to reviewing evidence on artificial intelligence in breast cancer screening
S Taylor-Phillips et al, The Lancet Digital Health, July, 2022 (Posted: Jun 22, 2022 11AM)

When considering cancer detection, AI test sensitivity alone is not sufficiently informative, and additional information on the spectrum of disease detected and interval cancers is crucial to better understand the benefits and harms of screening. Although large retrospective studies might provide useful evidence by directly comparing test accuracy and spectrum of disease detected between different AI systems and by population subgroup, most retrospective studies are biased due to differential verification (ie, the use of different reference standards to verify the target condition among study participants).

Polygenic risk scores to stratify cancer screening should predict mortality not incidence
AJ Vickers et al, NPJ Precision Oncology, May 30, 2022 (Posted: Jun 01, 2022 7AM)

It has recently been proposed that cancer screening could be restricted to a high-risk subgroup based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) using panels of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These PRSs were, however, generated to predict cancer incidence rather than cancer mortality and will not necessarily address overdiagnosis, a major problem associated with cancer screening programs.

Can polygenic risk scores contribute to cost-effective cancer screening? A systematic review
P Dixon et al, Genetics in Medicine, May 16, 2022 (Posted: May 16, 2022 10AM)

Despite the positive conclusions of the studies included in this systematic review, it is unclear if polygenic risk stratification will contribute to cost-effective cancer screening given the absence of robust evidence on the costs of polygenic risk stratification, the effects of differential ancestry, potential downstream economic sequalae, and how large volumes of polygenic risk data would be collected and used.

Effect of Patient-Directed Messaging on Colorectal Cancer Screening A Randomized Clinical Trial
A Oyalowo et al, JAMA Network Open, March 31, 2022 (Posted: Apr 01, 2022 1PM)

Are individuals more likely to complete colorectal cancer screening if they receive communication that is tailored to their attitudes and beliefs? In this randomized clinical trial including 600 participants, a tailored message intervention and a generic message intervention were significantly more effective at increasing colonoscopy scheduling and colonoscopy completion rates compared with usual care. The tailored message intervention was not shown to be superior to the generic message intervention.

Multi-Cancer Early Detection (MCED)
NCI, 2022 Brand (Posted: Mar 22, 2022 6AM)

An emerging paradigm shift appears to be underway to screen for multiple cancers simultaneously with a single MCED test. However, using an MCED test poses many uncertainties, including questions as to what additional diagnostic workup is necessary and feasible following a positive test to confirm the presence of a cancer; what types of cancers are detected by an MCED test and at what stages; what patient populations will derive a net benefit from MCED screening; and whether MCED tests can be successfully implemented in real-world practice. This webpage is a gateway to DCP efforts surrounding study of MCED assays for cancer screening.

Advances in Breast Cancer-Screening and Treatment Get Personal
NIH News in Health, February 2022 Brand (Posted: Feb 11, 2022 8AM)

Researchers are studying the risk factors for different types of breast cancer. They’re also searching for more personalized treatments. Breast cancer is caused by a combination of factors. Your genes, lifestyle, and environment all contribute to your risk. Researchers are trying to better understand how each plays a role. People with a family history of breast cancer are at increased risk for the disease. Some are born with rare versions of certain genes that put them at high risk. These include the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. But the vast majority of patients have no known family history and no known gene that causes cancer.

Risk-Stratified Approach to Breast Cancer Screening in Canada: Women’s Knowledge of the Legislative Context and Concerns about Discrimination from Genetic and Other Predictive Health Data
S Alarie et al, JPM, July 2021 (Posted: Aug 02, 2021 4PM)

Addressing health disparities in cancer with genomics
OD Balogun et al, Nature Rev Genetics, July 9, 2021 (Posted: Jul 09, 2021 8AM)

Incorporating genomics more widely into cancer screening and management will help to tackle the mortality gap between Black and white patients with cancer. Here, we emphasize the role of genomics as a tool to promote health equity in cancer.

Molecular cancer screening: in search of evidence
S Raoof et al, Nature Medicine, July 2, 2021 (Posted: Jul 03, 2021 7AM)

Cancer screening with germline genetic sequencing and liquid biopsy could facilitate early cancer detection. But testing if these technologies reduce the burden of cancer mortality will require rethinking how clinical trials are run.

Race representation matters in cancer care
Lancet Digital Health, June 2021 (Posted: Jun 26, 2021 7AM)

Without reporting how representative existing datasets are, we cannot understand if potentially lifesaving technologies for cancer screening and diagnosis are built for use by everyone. In response, the National Institutes of Health launched the All of Us initiative in 2015 with ambitious goals to collect genomic data from one million people, with a focus on recruiting minority ethnic volunteers. However, there continues to be a paucity of data from non-White populations, widening the gap between those who already benefit and those who do not.

Stool-based Colorectal Cancer Screening in the COVID-19 Era
WD Dotson et al, CDC Blog, April, 12, 2021 Brand (Posted: Apr 13, 2021 7AM)

The broad aftermath of the pandemic will be with us for many years to come. Some of the resulting changes can be positive, including an increased awareness of digital, genomic and other precision health technologies which may provide alternatives to traditional screening methods.

Risk-adapted starting age of breast cancer screening in women with a family history of ovarian or other cancers: A nationwide cohort study.
Mukama Trasias et al. Cancer 2021 (Posted: Feb 26, 2021 11AM)

“Liquid biopsy” for cancer screening
SH Bradley et al, BMJ, January 4, 2021 (Posted: Jan 06, 2021 8AM)

Liquid biopsy offers the hope of diagnosing cancer earlier and improving survival. But ensuring that the benefits outweigh potential harms requires the tried and tested methods of clinical trials. In coming months, greater clarity will be required on exactly how this promising technology will be evaluated.

Pandemic Spotlights In-home Colon Cancer Screening Tests
MC Jaclevic, JAMA, December 23, 2020 (Posted: Dec 24, 2020 7AM)

Long overshadowed by colonoscopy, stool-based screening tests that patients perform at home are getting a boost as hospitals halted and then curtailed nonemergency procedures in an effort to preserve resources and prevent novel coronavirus transmission. One type of test, multitarget stool DNA detects cancer biomarkers and blood in the stools.

Development and Validation of a Serum Metabolomic Signature for Endometrial Cancer Screening in Postmenopausal Women
J Troisi et al, JAMA Network Open, September 28, 2020 (Posted: Sep 29, 2020 8AM)

Is combining the blood metabolomic signature of endometrial carcinoma with an ensemble machine learning algorithm a useful system for screening test for endometrial cancer? In this study of 1550 postmenopausal women, the proposed screening test correctly identified all 16 women with endometrial cancer, with 2 false-positive results and 0 false-negative results.

Deep Learning Using Chest Radiographs to Identify High-Risk Smokers for Lung Cancer Screening Computed Tomography: Development and Validation of a Prediction Model.
Lu Michael T et al. Annals of internal medicine 2020 Sep (Posted: Sep 03, 2020 7AM)

Lung cancer screening with chest computed tomography (CT) reduces lung cancer death. Eligibility criteria for screening with CT require detailed smoking information and miss many incident lung cancers. An automated deep-learning approach based on chest radiographs may identify more smokers at high risk for lung cancer who could benefit from screening.

Effect of a Digital Health Intervention on Decreasing Barriers and Increasing Facilitators for Colorectal Cancer Screening in Vulnerable Patients
NMD Thompson et al, CEBP, August 2020 (Posted: Sep 01, 2020 8AM)

A patient decision aid called Mobile Patient Technology for Health-CRC (mPATH-CRC) doubled the proportion of patients who completed colorectal cancer screening. IT increased completion of colorectal cancer screening by affecting patient-level and system-level mediators. The most powerful mediator was the occurrence of a patient–provider discussion about screening.

AI dual-stain approach improved accuracy, efficiency of cervical cancer screening in NCI study
NCI, June 2020 Brand (Posted: Jun 30, 2020 8AM)

In recent years, clinicians have hoped to take advantage of advances in digital imaging and machine learning to improve cervical cancer screening. The challenge is to identify which women with positive HPV test results are most likely to have precancerous changes in their cervical cells.

Liquid biopsy for early stage lung cancer moves ever closer
C Rolfo et al, Nat Rev Clin Oncol, May 26, 2020 (Posted: May 27, 2020 9AM)

Lung cancer screening is currently based only on low-dose CT scans; however, novel, more accessible methods that might improve uptake and adherence are eagerly awaited. New liquid biopsy approaches promise to revolutionize cancer screening. Herein, we discuss the opportunities and challenges associated with two such novel assays.

What Is Colorectal Cancer Screening?
CDC, March 2020 Brand (Posted: Mar 09, 2020 8AM)

Regular screening, beginning at age 50, is the key to preventing colorectal cancer. If you think you may be at increased risk for colorectal cancer, learn your family health history and ask your doctor if you should begin screening before age 50.

Should polygenic risk scores be used in risk-stratified colorectal cancer screening?
WD Dotson et al, CDC Blog Post, February 24, 2020 Brand (Posted: Feb 25, 2020 9AM)

Dcreening based on polygenic risk prediction is not ready for widespread implementation. Stratification based on polygenic and/or multifactorial risk assessment may mature to the point of displacing family history-based approaches, but for the foreseeable future, family history may remain a valuable clinical tool for identifying individuals at increased risk.

Artificial Intelligence Improves Breast Cancer Screening in Study
J Abbasi, JAMA, February 11, 2020 (Posted: Feb 12, 2020 8AM)

Researchers at Google Health and collaborators developed a deep-learning AI model for identifying breast cancer using screening mammograms from 2 large UK and US data sets. The test sets, which were not used to train or tune the system, included scans from 25?856 women at 2 screening centers in England and 3097 women at a US academic medical center.

Stand-alone artificial intelligence - The future of breast cancer screening?
Sechopoulos Ioannis et al. Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 2020 Jan 49254-260 (Posted: Jan 15, 2020 8AM)

Improving cancer screening programs
M Kalager et al, Science, January 10, 2020 (Posted: Jan 11, 2020 11AM)

Future tests such as panels of genetic markers for prostate and breast cancer screening are expected to enter national screening programs soon. In the United States, a fecal DNA marker panel for colorectal cancer is recommended by some organizations on the basis of microsimulation modeling data and not RCTs.

AI shows promise for breast cancer screening
ED Pisano, Nature, January 2020 (Posted: Jan 05, 2020 11AM)

Could artificial intelligence improve the accuracy of screening for breast cancer? A comparison of the diagnostic performance of expert physicians and computers suggests so, but the clinical implications are as yet uncertain.

International evaluation of an AI system for breast cancer screening
SM McKinney et al, Nature, January 2020 (Posted: Jan 05, 2020 11AM)

We present an artificial intelligence system that is capable of surpassing human experts in breast cancer prediction. To assess its performance in the clinical setting, we curated a large representative dataset from the UK and a large enriched dataset from the USA. We show an absolute reduction of 5.7% and 1.2% in false positives and 9.4% and 2.7% in false negatives

Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism–Based Genetic Risk Score and Patient Age at Prostate Cancer Diagnosis
R Na et al, JAMA Network Open, December 27, 2019 (Posted: Dec 27, 2019 5PM)

In a cohort study of 3225 men, family history alone identified 14% at high risk of prostate cancer. Combining family history and genetic risk score can better stratify inherited risk to develop personalized prostate cancer screening strategies.

Polygenic risk-tailored screening for prostate cancer: A benefit-harm and cost-effectiveness modelling study.
Callender Tom et al. PLoS medicine 2019 Dec (12) e1002998 (Posted: Dec 21, 2019 4PM)

Based on the results of this modelling study, offering screening to men at higher risk could potentially reduce overdiagnosis and improve the benefit–harm tradeoff and the cost-effectiveness of a prostate cancer screening program. The optimal threshold will depend on societal judgements of the appropriate balance of benefits–harms and cost-effectiveness.

Implementing universal cancer screening programs can help sustain genomic medicine programs
AK Rahm et al, Frontiers in Genetics, December 2019 (Posted: Dec 11, 2019 7AM)

In this commentary, we discuss how implementing evidence-based universal cancer screening programs, such as universal Lynch syndrome screening and other programs, can sustain current genomic medicine programs and pave the way for future genomic screening programs.

Toward Risk-Stratified Breast Cancer Screening: Considerations for Changes in Screening Guidelines
GL Gierach et al, JAMA Oncology, November 14, 2019 (Posted: Nov 15, 2019 7AM)

Improved strategies for risk-stratified breast cancer screening should take into account not only family history, but also existing & emerging prediction tools (eg genetic risk scores) for breast cancer and its biologically heterogeneous subtypes.

Cost-effectiveness of risk-stratified colorectal cancer screening based on polygenic risk – current status and future potential
SK Naber et al, JNCI SPectrum, October 17, 2019 (Posted: Oct 18, 2019 8AM)

This cost-effectiveness analysis shows that currently, colorectal cancer screening based on polygenic risk is unlikely to be cost effective compared to uniform screening. This is expected to change with a?>?0.05 increase in AUC value, a?>?30% reduction in polygenic testing costs, or a?>?5% increase in adherence with screening.

USPSTF Recommendation Expands Cancer Screening Pool, Concerns Still Remain
KL Kahl, Cure, August 26, 2019 (Posted: Aug 27, 2019 7AM)

Many see the new USPSTF guidelines as a major step forward in genetics. However, the updated recommendation still comes with concerns: It failed to include newly diagnosed patients with breast or ovarian cancer as well as patients with advanced cancers. In addition, it did not include men. Fifty percent of people with a BRCA mutation are men.

Risk prediction models for colorectal cancer incorporating common genetic variants: a systematic review
McGeoch, L. et. al. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention (Posted: Jul 15, 2019 9AM)

This is an updated systematic review of colorectal cancer risk prediction models that incorporate genetic factors. The addition of genetics may increase predictive ability by 0.01 to 0.05. There are added value beyond using family history alone and potential implications for starting age of colorectal cancer screening.

Breast cancer screening in high-risk women: is MRI alone enough?
Saccarelli Carolina Rossi et al. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2019 Jun (Posted: Jun 26, 2019 8AM)

MRI is the most sensitive imaging technique for breast cancer screening. Women at high risk for breast cancer such as due to #BRCA mutations are recommended to have annual MRI screening. But is MRI screening alone enough?

End-to-end lung cancer screening with three-dimensional deep learning on low-dose chest computed tomography
D Ardila et al, Nature Medicine, May 20, 2019 (Posted: May 20, 2019 11AM)

Colorectal Cancer Screening
N Gupta et al, JAMA Clinical Guidelines Synopsis, April 25, 2019 (Posted: Apr 25, 2019 0PM)

Should women with a BRCA1/2 mutation aged 60 and older be offered intensified breast cancer screening? - A cost-effectiveness analysis.
Phi Xuan-Anh et al. Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 2019 Mar 4582-88 (Posted: Mar 27, 2019 9AM)

Colon Cancer Screening Can Save Your Life- With colorectal cancer being found in an increasing number of younger adults, the pressure is on to screen millions more.
JE Brody, NY Times, March 11, 2019 (Posted: Mar 17, 2019 4PM)

What Is Breast Cancer Screening?
CDC, 2019 Brand (Posted: Feb 18, 2019 0PM)

Providing clinicians and patients with important information to help guide decisions about prostate cancer screening.
USPSTF, October 8, 2018 (Posted: Oct 09, 2018 2PM)

Could earlier colorectal cancer screening help identify more people with hereditary cancer?
L Steinmark, Jackson Labs, September 25, 2018 (Posted: Sep 26, 2018 8AM)

Final Recommendation Statement Cervical Cancer Screening,
U.S. Preventative Services Task Force, August 2018 (Posted: Aug 29, 2018 9AM)

Cancer Screening
Recommendations for individual patients vary according to their level of risk, Jackson Labs, clinician education (Posted: Aug 27, 2018 2PM)

Low Referral Rate for Genetic Testing in Racially and Ethnically Diverse Patients Despite Universal Colorectal Cancer Screening.
Muller Charles et al. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 2018 Aug (Posted: Aug 22, 2018 11AM)

Cervical Cancer Screening—Moving From the Value of Evidence to the Evidence of Value
GF Sawaya, JAMA Internal Medicine, AUgust 21, 2018 (Posted: Aug 21, 2018 0PM)

Family history-based colorectal cancer screening in Australia: A modelling study of the costs, benefits, and harms of different participation scenarios.
Dillon Mary et al. PLoS medicine 2018 Aug (8) e1002630 (Posted: Aug 21, 2018 8AM)

Blood based biomarkers beyond genomics for lung cancer screening.
Hanash Samir M et al. Translational lung cancer research 2018 Jun (3) 327-335 (Posted: Aug 01, 2018 9AM)

Using Genetic Risk Scores in Cancer Screening: Are We There Yet?
Roberts M et al, CDC Blog Post, July 5, 2018 Brand (Posted: Jul 06, 2018 8AM)

Genetic Risk Score Is Associated With Prevalence of Advanced Neoplasms in a Colorectal Cancer Screening Population.
Weigl Korbinian et al. Gastroenterology 2018 Mar (Posted: Jun 26, 2018 7PM)

Colorectal cancer screening for average]risk adults: 2018 guideline update from the American Cancer Society
MD Andrew et al. Cancer, May 30, 2018 (Posted: May 30, 2018 11AM)

Evaluating and improving the implementation of a community-based hereditary cancer screening program.
Greenberg Samantha et al. Journal of community genetics 2018 Mar (Posted: Mar 07, 2018 9AM)

The Yet Unrealized Promise of Ovarian Cancer Screening
CW Drescher et al, JAMA Oncology, Feb 13, 2018 (Posted: Feb 14, 2018 9AM)

Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors of First Degree Relatives of Women Receiving Breast Cancer Treatment and the Affecting Factors.
Kirca Nurcan et al. European journal of breast health 2018 Jan 14(1) 23-28 (Posted: Jan 17, 2018 11AM)

Prostate-specific antigen velocity in a prospective prostate cancer screening study of men with genetic predisposition.
Mikropoulos Christos et al. British journal of cancer 2018 Jan (Posted: Jan 10, 2018 9AM)

Pancreatic cancer screening in high-risk individuals with germline genetic mutations.
DaVee Tomas et al. Gastrointestinal endoscopy 2018 Jan (Posted: Jan 10, 2018 9AM)

No evidence of excessive cancer screening in female noncarriers from BRCA1/2 mutation-positive families.
Guedaoura S et al. Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.) 2017 Dec 24(6) 352-359 (Posted: Jan 03, 2018 10AM)

Colorectal Cancer Screening in the Non-Syndromic Familial Risk Population: Is It Time to Revise the Clinical Guidelines?
Quintero Enrique et al. The American journal of gastroenterology 2017 Oct (Posted: Nov 01, 2017 9AM)

NCI study shows feasibility of cancer screening protocol for Li-Fraumeni syndrome patients
Science Mag, August 3, 2017 (Posted: Aug 07, 2017 9AM)

Population-Based Precision Cancer Screening: A Symposium on Evidence, Epidemiology, and Next Steps.
Marcus Pamela M et al. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2016 Nov (11) 1449-1455 (Posted: Aug 06, 2017 10AM)

Cancer Screening Recommendations for Individuals with Li-Fraumeni Syndrome.
Kratz Christian P et al. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2017 06 (11) e38-e45 (Posted: Aug 03, 2017 8PM)

Prostate Cancer Screening in a New Era of Genetics.
Cheng Heather H et al. Clinical genitourinary cancer 2017 May (Posted: Jul 19, 2017 8AM)

Draft Recommendation Statement: Ovarian Cancer Screening
US Preventive Services Task Force, July 2017 (Posted: Jul 18, 2017 4PM)

Benefits and harms of prostate cancer screening - predictions of the ONCOTYROL prostate cancer outcome and policy model.
Mühlberger Nikolai et al. BMC public health 2017 Jun 17(1) 596 (Posted: Jun 28, 2017 10AM)

Recommendations for Childhood Cancer Screening and Surveillance in DNA Repair Disorders.
Walsh Michael F et al. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2017 Jun 23(11) e23-e31 (Posted: Jun 07, 2017 9AM)

Early Adoption of a Multitarget Stool DNA Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening.
Finney Rutten Lila J et al. Mayo Clinic proceedings 2017 May (5) 726-733 (Posted: Jun 01, 2017 10AM)

Colorectal Cancer Screening: Recommendations for Physicians and Patients from the U.S. Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer.
Rex Douglas K et al. The American journal of gastroenterology 2017 May (Posted: May 31, 2017 11AM)

Comparison of the efficiency of colorectal cancer screening programs based on age and genetic risk for reduction of colorectal cancer mortality.
Stanesby Oliver et al. European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2017 May (Posted: May 17, 2017 9AM)

Designing clinical and genetic guidelines of colorectal cancer screening as an effective roadmap for risk management.
Zali Mohammad Reza et al. Gastroenterology and hepatology from bed to bench 2016 Dec 9(Suppl1) S53-S61 (Posted: Mar 01, 2017 10AM)

Time is running out to get a free cancer screening
R Murray, Dayton Daily News, November 14, 2016 (Posted: Nov 15, 2016 9AM)

Genetic testing and personalized ovarian cancer screening: a survey of public attitudes.
Meisel Susanne F et al. BMC women's health 2016 16(1) 46 (Posted: Aug 03, 2016 9AM)

U.S. healthcare facilities have capacity to meet colorectal cancer screening goals
News Release, June 22, 2016 Brand (Posted: Jun 22, 2016 4PM)

Colorectal Cancer Screening- Which Test Is Best?
JM Inadomi, JAMA Oncology, June 16, 2016 (Posted: Jun 16, 2016 9AM)

Enhanced Risk-Based Lung Cancer Screening May Prevent More Deaths than Current Approaches
NCI, June 2016 (Posted: Jun 10, 2016 7AM)

Cancer Screening Tests
CDC, 2019 Brand (Posted: Apr 30, 2016 0AM)


Disclaimer: Articles listed in Hot Topics of the Day are selected by Public Health Genomics Branch to provide current awareness of the scientific literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.