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CDC COVID-19 Science Update Database

CDC COVID-19 Science Update Last data update: Oct 25, 2021 . (Total: 2162 Publications)

COVID-19 Incidence and Mortality in Federal and State Prisons Compared With the US Population, April 5, 2020, to April 3, 2021.
Marquez Neal, et al. JAMA 2021 0 0.
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Summary: Incarcerated persons were over 3 times as likely to contract COVID-19 (cumulative incidence rate ratio [cIRR] 3.3, 95% CI 3.3-3.3) and over twice as likely to die from COVID-19 (cumulative mortality rate ratio [cMRR] 2.5 95% CI 2.3-2.7) compared to the general population.

Visit Weekly CDC COVID-19 Science Update site for the full summary.

Changes in COVID-19 Vaccine Intent From April/May to June/July 2021.
Szilagyi Peter G, et al. JAMA 2021 0 0.
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Summary: Among 6,052 U.S. adults, the likelihood of vaccination remained stable during AprilJuly 2021. Of 564 respondents who were somewhat/very likely to get vaccinated in April/May, 45.6% reported being vaccinated by June/July. Of 1,403 respondents who were very/somewhat unlikely or unsure in April/May, 7.3% reported being vaccinated by June/July.

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Association Between Statewide COVID-19 Lottery Announcements and Vaccinations
Dave, Dhaval et al. JAMA Health Forum 2021 10.1001/jamahealthforum.2021.3117
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Summary: No association was found between cash lottery incentives and vaccination rates, April 28July 1, 2021. Findings were based on a differences-in-differences method to compare COVID-19 vaccination rates before and after lottery announcements in 19 states vs. states that did not use lottery incentives.

Visit Weekly CDC COVID-19 Science Update site for the full summary.

Association Between Risk of COVID-19 Infection in Nonimmune Individuals and COVID-19 Immunity in Their Family Members.
Nordström Peter, et al. JAMA internal medicine 2021 0 0.
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Key findings:
  • Incident COVID-19 in nonimmune household family members decreased as the number of immune family members increased (Figure).
  • Compared with individuals without any immune family members, nonimmune individuals with 1, 2, 3 or 4 immune family members had a 45%61%,75%86%, 91%94%, and 97% lower risk of infection, respectively.
Visit Weekly CDC COVID-19 Science Update site for the full summary.

COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance and Access Among Black and Latinx Communities.
Balasuriya Lilanthi, et al. JAMA network open 2021 0 0. (10) e2128575
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Summary: To understand facilitators and barriers to COVID-19 vaccination, 8 semi-structured in-depth focus groups (4 in Spanish; 4 in English) were conducted in March 2021 with 72 participants who identified as Hispanic/Latino and/or Black and had a diverse range of community roles in New Haven, CT. Three major themes emerged: pervasive mistreatment of Black and Hispanic/Latino communities and associated distrust; opportunities to build trust via trusted messengers and messages, choice, social support, and diversity; and the need to address structural barriers to vaccination access.

Visit Weekly CDC COVID-19 Science Update site for the full summary.

Associations between HIV infection and clinical spectrum of COVID-19: a population level analysis based on US National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) data.
Yang Xueying, et al. The lancet. HIV 2021 0 0.
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Key findings:
  • Among COVID-19 cases, people with HIV were more likely than people without HIV to be hospitalized (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.20, 95% CI 1.15-1.26) and die (aOR 1.29, 95% CI 1.16-1.44) (Figure)
  • People with HIV were less likely to have mild/moderate illness (aOR 0.61, 95% CI 0.59-0.64).
  • Among people with HIV, lower CD4 cell counts (<200 cells per L) were associated with higher risks for severe disease, hospitalization, and death.
  • Viral suppression was associated with reduced risk of hospitalization.
Visit Weekly CDC COVID-19 Science Update site for the full summary.

Effect of Delta variant on viral burden and vaccine effectiveness against new SARS-CoV-2 infections in the UK.
Pouwels Koen B, et al. Nature medicine 2021 0 0.
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Key findings:
  • Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against new SARS-CoV-2 infections 14 days after the 2nd dose of either BNT162b2 (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech) or ChAdOx1 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) during the Delta (B.1.617.2) period was similar to the VE during the Alpha (B.1.1.7) period (Figure).
  • VE against SARS-CoV-2 infections with high viral burden and symptomatic infections was reduced 1013% (BNT162b2) and 16% (ChAdOx1) from the Delta to the Alpha period.
  • During the Delta period, SARS-CoV-2 infections after 2 doses of either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 had similar Ct values as infections in unvaccinated adults.
  • Methods: Large longitudinal community-based study of randomly selected households to examine COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness among adults 18 years (n = 384,543), United Kingdom, December 1, 2020August 1, 2021. Outcomes included new PCR-positive cases, Ct values (<30 or 30), and symptoms. Limitations: Observational; sample size of available comparators (unvaccinated and no prior infections) declined over time; no information on severe outcomes.
  • Implications: Vaccine effectiveness of BNT162b2 was robust during the Delta period yet modest declines were observed for some infections. Vaccination remains a centerpiece of protection against SARS-CoV-2 and the Delta viral variant.
Visit Weekly CDC COVID-19 Science Update site for the full summary.

The association of opening K-12 schools with the spread of COVID-19 in the United States: County-level panel data analysis.
Chernozhukov Victor, et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2021 0 0. (42)
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Key findings:
  • In-person K12 school openings were associated with increased county-level COVID-19 cases and deaths (Figure).
  • The association was stronger in counties without staff mask mandates (Figure).
  • K12 school openings were associated with case growth rate increases of 57%.
  • In-person school openings coincided with increased mobility (Figure).
Visit Weekly CDC COVID-19 Science Update site for the full summary.

Virologic features of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children.
Yonker Lael M, et al. The Journal of infectious diseases 2021 0 0.
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Summary: Among 110 children ( 21 years, median age 10 years) with COVID-19 who presented to urgent care clinics or hospitals in Massachusetts during April 2020April 2021 with symptoms or possible exposure, increasing age was associated with greater disease severity. Viral loads in children with asymptomatic or mild infections were higher than in children or adults with severe disease. Viral load and replication-competent virus in children was highest in the first 2 days of symptoms and decreased after 5 days.

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Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 up to 15 months after infection
Marcotte, Harold et al.bioRxiv 10.1101/2021.10.08.463699
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Summary: In serum from 136 COVID-19 patients (98 from Italy, 38 from Sweden), IgG antibodies were found 615 months after natural infection in 68% (anti-RBD [n = 30/44]) and 73% (anti-S [n = 32/44]) of patients. Lower antibody levels were associated with milder disease. Neutralizing antibodies were lower against variants of concern than against wild type. SARS-CoV-2 memory B and T cells were present in >95% of patients 615 months after infection.

Visit Weekly CDC COVID-19 Science Update site for the full summary.

Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 Infections after Vaccination in North Carolina
Uschner, Diane et al.medRxiv 10.1101/2021.10.10.21264812
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Key findings:
  • 1.9% (310/16,020) of fully vaccinated persons reported a subsequent positive SARS-CoV-2 test (event rate of 7.3 infections per 100,000 person-years).
  • Among fully vaccinated persons followed for 34 weeks, cumulative incidence of symptomatic breakthrough infection was 5.2% at 34 weeks (Figure).
  • Rates were higher among persons vaccinated with Ad26.COV2.S (Johnson & Johnson/Janssen), from rural areas, and aged <45 years.
Visit Weekly CDC COVID-19 Science Update site for the full summary.

Heterologous SARS-CoV-2 Booster Vaccinations - Preliminary Report.
Atmar Robert L, et al. medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences 2021 0 0.
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Key findings:
  • Following homologous or heterologous booster vaccinations, reported reactions (injection site pain, malaise, headache, and myalgia) were similar to those reported after the primary vaccination series.
  • Booster vaccines, including heterologous mRNA vaccine boosters, increased neutralizing activity for all vaccine combinations (Figure).
Visit Weekly CDC COVID-19 Science Update site for the full summary.

Differentiation of SARS-CoV-2 naturally infected and vaccinated individuals in an inner-city emergency department.
Beck Evan J, et al. medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences 2021 0 0.
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Key findings:
  • The sensitivity and specificity of a testing algorithm for identifying vaccinated persons were 100% (95% CI 99.1%-100.0%) and 98.9% (95 Cl 98.2%-99.3%), respectively.
  • The sensitivity and specificity for identifying previously infected persons were 84.4% (95% CI 80.9%-87.5%) and 100% (95% CI 99.7%-100.0%).
  • Among patients in a Baltimore ED, overall seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 increased from 1.6% (95% CI 1.1%-2.5%) in early 2020 to 23.8% (95% CI 22.2%-25.4%) in early 2021 (Figure).
  • In spring 2020, a similar proportion of Hispanic patients and non-Hispanic patients had been infected.
  • By spring 2021, a higher proportion of Hispanic patients than non-Hispanic patients had been infected (aOR = 3.31 [95% CI 2.16, 5.07]).
Visit Weekly CDC COVID-19 Science Update site for the full summary.

Differential immunogenicity of homologous versus heterologous boost in Ad26.COV2.S vaccine recipients
Kim Huat, Nicholas Khoo et al.medRxiv 10.1101/2021.10.14.21264981
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Summary: Among 115 recipients of different vaccination regimens in Singapore, heterologous boosting with BNT162b2 after Ad26.COV2.S led to better immunogenicity based on virus-specific antibody, B cell, and T cell qualitative and quantitative measurements, compared to a homologous booster.

Visit Weekly CDC COVID-19 Science Update site for the full summary.

COVID-19 vaccination intention and vaccine characteristics influencing vaccination acceptance: a global survey of 17 countries.
Wong Li Ping, et al. Infectious diseases of poverty 2021 0 0. (1) 122
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Summary: COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was measured in a cross-sectional multi-country global online survey (n = 17 countries; 19,714 total responses), January 4March 6, 2021. Nearly all respondents in Australia (96.4%), China (95.3%), and Norway (95.3) reported they were likely or extremely likely to receive a vaccine. About one-third of respondents in Japan (34.6%), the U.S. (29.4%), and Iran (27.9%) were unlikely or extremely unlikely to receive a vaccine. The U.S. had the highest proportion who were extremely unlikely to receive a vaccine (15.4%).

Visit Weekly CDC COVID-19 Science Update site for the full summary.

Use of Community-Based Participatory Research Partnerships to Reduce COVID-19 Disparities Among Marshallese Pacific Islander and Latino Communities - Benton and Washington Counties, Arkansas, April-December 2020.
McElfish Pearl A, et al. Preventing chronic disease 2021 0 0. E91
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Summary: After the start of a community-based intervention to promote linguistically appropriate health education, testing, contact tracing, and care navigation, the proportion of COVID-19 cases that were among Marshallese and Hispanic/Latino populations decreased from 19% to 8% and from 46% to 32%, respectively.

Visit Weekly CDC COVID-19 Science Update site for the full summary.

Increased risk for COVID-19 breakthrough infection in fully vaccinated patients with substance use disorders in the United States between December 2020 and August 2021.
Wang Lindsey, et al. World psychiatry : official journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) 2021 0 0.
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Summary: Breakthrough infections were more likely among people with substance use disorders (N = 30,183) compared to those without (N = 549,189) among fully vaccinated peoples in a U.S. population-based study using electronic health records. People with substance use disorders who used cocaine (HR = 2.06; 95% CI 1.30-3.25) or cannabis (HR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.39-2.66) had the highest risks for breakthrough infections after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and vaccine type. There was a higher prevalence of comorbidities and adverse socioeconomic determinants among those with substance use disorders.

Visit Weekly CDC COVID-19 Science Update site for the full summary.

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This database is an online, continuously updated, searchable database of articles summarized in the CDC COVID-19 Science Update from the CDC COVID-19 Chief Medical Officer and the CDC Office of Library Science. This weekly series provides timely summaries of new COVID-19 publications and preprints on public health priority topics, including vaccines; variants; natural history, reinfection, and health impact; prevention strategies and non-pharmaceutical interventions; testing; transmission risk and dynamics; and health equity.

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Disclaimer: The purpose of the CDC COVID-19 Science Update is to share public health articles with public health agencies and departments for informational and educational purposes. Materials listed in this Science Update are selected to provide awareness of relevant public health literature. A material’s inclusion and the material itself provided here in full or in part, does not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services or the CDC, nor does it necessarily imply endorsement of methods or findings. While much of the COVID-19 literature is open access or otherwise freely available, it is the responsibility of the third-party user to determine whether any intellectual property rights govern the use of materials in this Science Update prior to use or distribution. Findings are based on research available at the time of this publication and may be subject to change.

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