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Diabetes PHGKB

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Last Posted: Feb 07, 2023
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Trialing precision medicine for type 2 diabetes
SJ Pilla et al, Nature Medicine, February 6, 2023

A study prospectively evaluating a stratified approach to selecting treatment heralds a new era of precision medicine for type 2 diabetes, which should incorporate ongoing discovery, social determinants of health and healthcare transformation.

Loci for insulin processing and secretion provide insight into type 2 diabetes risk.
K Alaine Broadaway et al. American journal of human genetics 2023 1

Insulin secretion is critical for glucose homeostasis, and increased levels of the precursor proinsulin relative to insulin indicate pancreatic islet beta-cell stress and insufficient insulin secretory capacity in the setting of insulin resistance. We conducted meta-analyses of genome-wide association results for fasting proinsulin from 16 European-ancestry studies in 45,861 individuals. We found 36 independent signals at 30 loci (p value < 5 × 10-8), which validated 12 previously reported loci for proinsulin and ten additional loci previously identified for another glycemic trait.

How our microbiome is shaped by family, friends and even neighbours.
Callaway Ewen et al. Nature 2023 1

People living in the same household share more than just a roof (and pints of milk). Be they family or flatmate, housemates tend to have the same microbes colonizing their bodies, and the longer the cohabitation, the more similar these microbiomes become. The conclusion — based on a new study of the gut and mouth microbiomes of thousands of people from around the world1 — raises the possibility that diseases linked to microbiome dysfunction, including cancer, diabetes and obesity, could be partly transmissible.

Genetic predictors of lifelong medication-use patterns in cardiometabolic diseases.
Kiiskinen Tuomo et al. Nature medicine 2023 1

Little is known about the genetic determinants of medication use in preventing cardiometabolic diseases. Using the Finnish nationwide drug purchase registry with follow-up since 1995, we performed genome-wide association analyses of longitudinal patterns of medication use in hyperlipidemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes in up to 193,933 individuals (55% women) in the FinnGen study. In meta-analyses of up to 567,671 individuals combining FinnGen with the Estonian Biobank and the UK Biobank, we discovered 333 independent loci (P?<?5?×?10–9) associated with medication use.

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