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Hot Topics of the Day are picked by experts to capture the latest information and publications on public health genomics and precision health for various diseases and health topics. Sources include published scientific literature, reviews, blogs and popular press articles.

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1827 hot topic(s) found with the query "Covid-19"

COVID-19 susceptibility variants associate with blood clots, thrombophlebitis and circulatory diseases
A Papadopolou et al, MEDRXIV, May 8, 2021 (Posted: May-09-2021 7AM)

Higher case fatality rate among obstetric patients with COVID-19 in the second year of pandemic in Brazil: do new genetic variants play a role?
M Libertad et al, MEDRXIV, May 8, 2021 (Posted: May-09-2021 7AM)

Identification of risk and protective human leukocyte antigens in COVID-19 using genotyping and structural modeling
Y Shen et al, MEDRXIV, May 8, 2021 (Posted: May-09-2021 7AM)

COVID-19 cases from the first local outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant in China presented more serious clinical features: a prospective, comparative cohort study
Y Song et al, MEDRXIV, May 8, 2021 (Posted: May-09-2021 7AM)

Teletherapy for children with developmental disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines: a mixed-methods evaluation from the perspectives of parents and therapists
KF Eguia et al, MEDRXIV, May 9, 2021 (Posted: May-09-2021 7AM)

This study evaluated the delivery of teletherapy from the perspectives of parents and therapists. Methods: Participants consisted of parents (n = 47) and therapists (n = 102) of children with developmental disorders who were receiving teletherapy during the lockdown.

Precision Medicine for COVID-19: Phenotype Anarchy or Promise Realized?
DeMerle Kimberley et al. JAMA 2021 5 (Posted: May-08-2021 7AM)

The pursuit of precision COVID-19 treatment is already underway. Yet crude treatment assignment for select patients and number of proposed subtypes make progress appear disorganized and imprecise. Five essential criteria could help define COVID-19 subtypes: (1) biologically plausible, (2) promptly identifiable, (3) nonsynonymous, (4) reproducible, and, most important, (5) treatment responsive. The subtyping should consider clinical metadata, pathogen sequencing, and multi-omic readouts that inform not just COVID-19 prognosis, but treatment regimens.

The first GAEN-based COVID-19 contact tracing app in Norway identifies 80% of close contacts in "real life" scenarios.
H Meijerink et al, MEDRXIV, May 7, 2021 (Posted: May-08-2021 6AM)

Pfizer COVID vaccine protects against worrying coronavirus variants- Data from Qatar provide strongest evidence yet that COVID-19 vaccines can stop strains thought to pose a threat to immunization efforts.
E Callaway, Nature, May 6, 2021 (Posted: May-07-2021 10AM)

Researchers Tie Severe Immunosuppression to Chronic COVID-19 and Virus Variants.
Abbasi Jennifer et al. JAMA 2021 5 (Posted: May-07-2021 9AM)

Derivation and external validation of a simple risk score to predict in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized for COVID-19
CZ Mann et al, MEDRXIV, May 6, 2021 (Posted: May-07-2021 9AM)

Moderna booster increases antibodies against COVID-19 variants, early data shows
C O'Donnell, Reuters, May 6, 2021 (Posted: May-06-2021 7AM)

Efficacy of NVX-CoV2373 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.351 Variant.
Shinde Vivek et al. The New England journal of medicine 2021 5 (Posted: May-06-2021 7AM)

Vaccine efficacy among HIV-negative participants was 60.1% (95% CI, 19.9 to 80.1). Of 41 sequenced isolates, 38 (92.7%) were the B.1.351 variant. Post hoc vaccine efficacy against B.1.351 was 51.0% (95% CI, -0.6 to 76.2) among the HIV-negative participants. Preliminary local and systemic reactogenicity events were more common in the vaccine group; serious adverse events were rare in both groups.

Effectiveness of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 Variants.
Abu-Raddad Laith J et al. The New England journal of medicine 2021 5 (Posted: May-06-2021 7AM)

The estimated effectiveness of the vaccine against any documented infection with the B.1.1.7 variant was 89.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 85.9 to 92.3) at 14 or more days after the second dose (Table 1 and Table S2). The effectiveness against any documented infection with the B.1.351 variant was 75.0% (95% CI, 70.5 to 78.9). Vaccine effectiveness against severe, critical, or fatal disease due to infection with any SARS-CoV-2 (with the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants being predominant within Qatar) was very high, at 97.4% (95% CI, 92.2 to 99.5).

Interplay between Emerging SARS-CoV-2 Variants and Pandemic Control.
Neuzil Kathleen M et al. The New England journal of medicine 2021 5 (Posted: May-06-2021 7AM)

The emergence of variant strains is arguably the greatest threat to control of the Covid-19 pandemic. A coordinated global prevention-and-control plan is the only way forward. Global investments in vaccine science and technology must be accompanied by investments in public health, genomic and disease surveillance, and programmatic immunization infrastructure to mitigate the effects of Covid-19 and future pandemics.

Covid-19: Studies Indicate Pfizer-BioNTech Vaccine Protects Against the Most Severe Outcomes of Some Virus Variants
NY Times, May 6, 2021 (Posted: May-06-2021 7AM)

Modeling of Future COVID-19 Cases, Hospitalizations, and Deaths, by Vaccination Rates and Nonpharmaceutical Intervention Scenarios — United States, April–September 2021
RK Borchering et al, MMWR, May 5, 2021 (Posted: May-05-2021 11AM)

Data from six models indicate that with high vaccination coverage and moderate NPI adherence, hospitalizations and deaths will likely remain low nationally, with a sharp decline in cases projected by July 2021. Lower NPI adherence could lead to substantial increases in severe COVID-19 outcomes, even with improved vaccination coverage.

Identification of and Surveillance for the SARS-CoV-2 Variants B.1.427 and B.1.429 — Colorado, January–March 2021
LM Webb et al, CDC MMWR, May 5, 2021 (Posted: May-05-2021 11AM)

By March 31, CDPHE reported 327 COVID-19 B.1.427/B.1.429 cases with specimen collection dates during January 4–March 20, including 90 (28%) B.1.427, 218 (67%) B.1.429, and 19 (6%) not differentiated by the reporting commercial laboratory. B.1.427/B.1.429 case sequences were identified a median of 14.5 days after specimen collection (range = 7–38 days). Median patient age was 39 years (range = <1–95 years); 186 (57%) patients were male. Cases were identified in 31 (48%) of Colorado’s 64 counties. Enhanced interviewing of all patients with variant cases was attempted through February; 60 (83%) such interviews were completed. Among these, nine (15%) persons reported travel outside Colorado

Forecasting COVID-19 Spreading in Canada using Deep Learning
F Khennou et al, MEDRXIV, May 4, 2021 (Posted: May-05-2021 8AM)

Tracking the emergence of disparities in the subnational spread of COVID-19 in Brazil using an online application for real-time data visualisation
P Mee et al, MEDRXIV May 4, 2021 (Posted: May-05-2021 8AM)

COVID-19 monitoring in rural communities: First comparison of lagoon and pumping station samples for wastewater-based epidemiology
PM D'Aoust et al, MEDRXIV, May 4, 2021 (Posted: May-05-2021 8AM)

Infection Units: A novel approach to the modeling of COVID-19 spread
JC Merchuk et al, MEDRXV, May 4, 2021 (Posted: May-05-2021 7AM)

Distinct patterns of blood cytokines beyond a cytokine storm predict mortality in COVID-19
C Herr et al, MEDRXIV, May 4, 2021 (Posted: May-05-2021 7AM)

Testing at scale during the COVID-19 pandemic
TR Mercer et al, Nature Rev Genetics, May 4, 2021 (Posted: May-04-2021 3PM)

This Review describes the changing role of testing during the COVID-19 pandemic, including the use of genomic surveillance to track SARS-CoV-2 transmission around the world, the use of contact tracing to contain disease outbreaks and testing for the presence of the virus circulating in the environment. Despite these efforts, widespread community transmission has become entrenched in many countries and has required the testing of populations to identify and isolate infected individuals, many of whom are asymptomatic.

Evidence for the utility of cfDNA plasma concentrations to predict disease severity in COVID-19
K Hoeter et al, MEDRXIV, May 2, 2021 (Posted: May-03-2021 0PM)

Modelling digital and manual contact tracing for COVID-19. Are low uptakes and missed contacts deal-breakers?
A Rusu et al, MEDRXIV, May 2, 2021 (Posted: May-03-2021 0PM)

Ethnic differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related hospitalisation, intensive care unit admission, and death in 17 million adults in England: an observational cohort study using the OpenSAFELY platform
R Mathur et al, The Lancet, April 30, 2021 (Posted: May-02-2021 0PM)

Of 17?288?532 adults included in the study (excluding care home residents), 10?877?978 (62·9%) were White. Minority ethnic populations in England have excess risks of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and of adverse COVID-19 outcomes compared with the White population, even after accounting for differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and household characteristics.

COVID-19 Outcomes and Sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from Veterans in New England
M Lee et al, MEDRXIV, April 30, 2021 (Posted: Apr-30-2021 7PM)

There are Different COVID-19 Vaccines
CDC, April 30, 2021 Brand (Posted: Apr-30-2021 7PM)

Some COVID-19 vaccines need 1 dose. Some COVID-19 vaccines need 2 doses. Some COVID-19 vaccines are for people ages 16 and older. Some COVID-19 vaccines are for people ages 18 and older. All COVID-19 vaccines teach your body to fight COVID-19. All COVID-19 vaccines need 14 days to teach your body.

A molecular single-cell lung atlas of lethal COVID-19
JC Melms et al, Nature, April 29, 2021 (Posted: Apr-29-2021 11AM)

Respiratory failure is the leading cause of death in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection1,2, yet the host response at the lung tissue-level is poorly understood. Here, we performed single-nucleus RNA-sequencing of ~116,000 nuclei of lungs from 19 COVID-19 decedents who underwent rapid autopsy and 7 control lungs. Integrated analyses revealed significant alterations in cellular composition, transcriptional cell states, and cell-to-cell interactions, providing insights into the biology of lethal COVID-19.

Beyond the First Dose - Covid-19 Vaccine Follow-through and Continued Protective Measures.
Goldfarb Jillian L et al. The New England journal of medicine 2021 4 (Posted: Apr-29-2021 7AM)

Despite current efforts, many Americans, including many of those who have already received a first vaccine dose, remain confused about the timing of protection and the necessity of a second dose. Moreover, a large proportion of vaccinees report being uninformed about guidance regarding the need to continue to take prophylactic measures including mask wearing and avoiding crowds.

Physician Perceptions of Surveillance: Wearables, Apps, and Bots for COVID-19
AR Limares et al, MEDRXIV, April 28, 2021 (Posted: Apr-29-2021 7AM)

Development of a Real-Time Risk Model (RTRM) for Predicting In-Hospital COVID-19 Mortality
D Schlauch et al, MEDRXIV, April 28, 2021 (Posted: Apr-29-2021 7AM)

India's Dire COVID-19 Situation Likely to Worsen. Could It Happen Here?
D McNamara, Medscape, April 27, 2021 (Posted: Apr-28-2021 0PM)

Symptom study app provides real-world data on COVID-19 vaccines
RE Drury et al, Lancet Infectious Diseases, April 27, 2021 (Posted: Apr-28-2021 0PM)

A new study provides valuable information to health-care professionals and the general public on vaccine reactogenicity and effectiveness in the community setting. In this era of rapid dissemination of information, good science communication has a crucial role to play in strengthening public confidence in vaccines and thus maximizing vaccine uptake.

Effectiveness of Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna Vaccines Against COVID-19 Among Hospitalized Adults Aged ≥65 Years — United States, January–March 2021
MW Tenford et al, MMWR, April 28, 2021 (Posted: Apr-28-2021 11AM)

In a multistate network of U.S. hospitals during January–March 2021, receipt of Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines was 94% effective against COVID-19 hospitalization among fully vaccinated adults and 64% effective among partially vaccinated adults aged =65 years.

Association of ABO blood group with COVID-19 severity, acute phase reactants and mortality
J Malik et al, MEDRXIV, April 27, 2021 (Posted: Apr-28-2021 7AM)

A Mongelli et al, MEDRXIV, April 27, 2021 (Posted: Apr-28-2021 7AM)

Predicting daily COVID-19 case rates from SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations across a diversity of wastewater catchments
A Zulli et al, MEDRXIV, April 27, 2021 (Posted: Apr-28-2021 6AM)

Effects of B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 on COVID-19 dynamics. A campus reopening study
K Linka et al, MEDRXIV, April 27, 2021 (Posted: Apr-28-2021 6AM)

Interleukin-6 receptor genetic variation and tocilizumab treatment response to COVID-19
AA Almarzook, MEDRXIV, April 27, 2021 (Posted: Apr-28-2021 6AM)

It's complicated: characterizing the time-varying relationship between cell phone mobility and COVID-19 spread in the US
S Jewell et al, MEDRXIV, April 27, 2021 (Posted: Apr-28-2021 6AM)

Predicting the end of Covid-19 infection for various countries using a stochastic agent-based model taking into account vaccination rates and the new mutant
M Karl et al, MEDRXIV, April 26, 2021 (Posted: Apr-27-2021 8AM)

Contrasting epidemiology and population genetics of COVID-19 infections defined with 74 polymorphic loci in SARS-CoV-2 genomes sampled globally.
F Chan et al, MEDRXIV, April 26, 2021 (Posted: Apr-27-2021 8AM)

2021: the beginning of a new era of immunizations?
The Lancet editorial, April 24, 2021 (Posted: Apr-26-2021 10AM)

Accelerating vaccine development, testing in trials, and licensing with robust post-licensing surveillance should become the new norm. Techniques used for COVID-19 vaccines, such as the use of mRNA, might be applicable to other diseases. Early-phase research for mRNA and vector-based vaccines for HIV has started.

Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting the expression of COVID-19-relevant genes in the large airway epithelium.
Kasela Silva et al. Genome medicine 2021 4 (1) 66 (Posted: Apr-26-2021 8AM)

Maternal and child outcomes reported by breastfeeding women following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination
K Bertrand et al, MEDRXIV, April 25, 2021 (Posted: Apr-26-2021 7AM)

The impact of genomics on precision public health: beyond the pandemic.
Khoury Muin J et al. Genome medicine 2021 4 (1) 67 (Posted: Apr-25-2021 7AM)

As the COVID-19 pandemic clearly shows, we need the tools of genomics more than ever before in the fight against infectious diseases. Beyond fighting outbreaks, genomics will become an essential component of public health in the twenty-first century for communicable and noncommunicable diseases.

Convergent evolution of SARS-CoV-2 spike mutations, L452R, E484Q and P681R, in the second wave of COVID-19 in Maharashtra, India
S Cherian et al, BIORXIV, April 24, 2021 (Posted: Apr-25-2021 7AM)

Monitoring global trends in Covid-19 vaccination intention and confidence: a social media-based deep learning study
X Zhou et al, MEDRXIV, April 24, 2021 (Posted: Apr-25-2021 7AM)

The proportion of tweets indicating intent to accept Covid-19 vaccination declined from 64.49% on March to 39.54% on September 2020, and then began to recover, reaching 52.56% in early 2021. This recovery in vaccine acceptance was largely driven by the US and European region, whereas other regions experienced the declining trends in 2020. Intent to accept and confidence of Covid-19 vaccination were relatively high in South-East Asia, Eastern Mediterranean, and Western Pacific regions, but low in American, European, and African regions.

Gut microbiota diversity and C-Reactive Protein are predictors of disease severity in COVID-19 patients
AM Rosario et al, BIORXIV, April 23, 2021 (Posted: Apr-24-2021 10AM)

Systematic review of the association between ABO blood type and COVID-19 incidence and mortality
Y Bai et al, MEDRXIV, April 23, 2021 (Posted: Apr-24-2021 10AM)

We conducted a systematic review of studies assessing correlations between ABO blood type and COVID incidence, hospitalization, and mortality to determine the quality of evidence these studies provide and whether the overall evidence suggests ABO blood type could provide a useful indicator of COVID risk. We conclude that most existing studies are low quality and suffer from major methodological flaws. The few higher-quality studies which do exist find no association between ABO blood type and COVID outcomes.

High-dimensional characterization of post-acute sequalae of COVID-19.
Al-Aly Ziyad et al. Nature 2021 4 (Posted: Apr-23-2021 10AM)

We use the national healthcare databases of the US Department of Veterans Affairs to systematically and comprehensively identify 6-month incident sequalae including diagnoses, medication use, and laboratory abnormalities in 30-day survivors of COVID-19. We show that beyond the first 30 days of illness, people with COVID-19 exhibit higher risk of death and health resource utilization. Our high dimensional approach identifies incident sequalae in the respiratory system and several others including nervous system and neurocognitive disorders, mental health disorders, metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, malaise, fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, and anemia.

One million coronavirus sequences: popular genome site hits mega milestone
A Maxmen, Nature News, April 23, 2021 (Posted: Apr-23-2021 10AM)

More than 1.2 million coronavirus genome sequences from 172 countries and territories have now been shared on a popular online data platform, which is a testament to the hard work of researchers around the world during the pandemic. Sequence data have been crucial to scientists studying the origins of SARS-CoV-2, the epidemiology of COVID-19 outbreaks and the movement of viral variants across the planet.

Previous COVID-19 infection but not Long-COVID is associated with increased adverse events following BNT162b2/Pfizer vaccination
RK Raw et al, MEDRXIV, April 22, 2021 (Posted: Apr-23-2021 8AM)

Effects of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine on Covid-19 infection and hospitalisation among older people: matched case control study for England
MFD Mason et al, MEDRXIV, April 22, 2021 (Posted: Apr-23-2021 8AM)

Public Perception of COVID-19 Vaccines through Analysis of Twitter Content and Users
SN Saleh et al, MEDRXIV, April 22, 2021 (Posted: Apr-23-2021 8AM)

Genetic mismatch explains sizable variation of COVID-19 vaccine efficacy in clinical trials
L Cao et al, MEDRXIV, April 22, 2021 (Posted: Apr-23-2021 8AM)

Real World Effectiveness of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines against Hospitalizations and Deaths in the United States
FS Vahidy et al, MEDRXIV< April 23, 2021 (Posted: Apr-23-2021 8AM)

We used a retrospective cohort assembled from a cross-institution comprehensive data repository. Established patients of the health care system were categorized as not immunized, partially immunized, or fully immunized against SARS-CoV-2 with an mRNA vaccine through April 4, 2021.mRNA vaccines were 96% (95%CI: 95 - 99) effective at preventing Covid-19 related hospitalization and 98.7% (95%CI: 91.0 - 99.8) effective at preventing Covid-19 related death when participants were fully vaccinated. Partial vaccination was 77% (95%CI: 71 - 82) effective at preventing hospitalization and 64.2% (95%CI: 13.0 - 85.2) effective at preventing death.

Interleukin-6 Receptor Antagonists in Critically Ill Patients with Covid-19
REMAP CAP investigators, NEJM, April 21, 2021 (Posted: Apr-22-2021 8AM)

In critically ill patients with Covid-19 receiving organ support in ICUs, treatment with the interleukin-6 receptor antagonists tocilizumab and sarilumab improved outcomes, including survival.

Effectiveness of the BNT162b2 vaccine in preventing COVID-19 in the working age population - first results from a cohort study in Southern Sweden
J Bjork et al, MEDRXIV, April 21, 2021 (Posted: Apr-22-2021 8AM)

Postvaccination SARS-CoV-2 Infections Among Skilled Nursing Facility Residents and Staff Members — Chicago, Illinois, December 2020–March 2021
RA Teran et al, MMWR, April 21, 2021 (Posted: Apr-21-2021 4PM)

Twenty-two possible breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections occurred among fully vaccinated persons =14 days after their second dose of COVID-19 vaccine. Two thirds of persons were asymptomatic. A minority of persons with breakthrough infection experienced mild to moderate COVID-19–like symptoms; two COVID-19–related hospitalizations and one death occurred. No facility-associated secondary transmission was identified.

COVID-19 Outbreak Associated with a SARS-CoV-2 R.1 Lineage Variant in a Skilled Nursing Facility After Vaccination Program — Kentucky, March 2021
AM Cavanaugh et al, MMWR, April 21, 2021 (Posted: Apr-21-2021 4PM)

In a COVID-19 outbreak at a Kentucky skilled nursing facility involving a newly introduced variant to the region, unvaccinated residents and health care personnel (HCP) had 3.0 and 4.1 times the risk of infection as did vaccinated residents and HCP. Vaccine was 86.5% protective against symptomatic illness among residents and 87.1% protective among HCP.

CovidEnvelope: A Fast Automated Approach to Diagnose COVID-19 from Cough Signals
MZ Hossain et al, MEDRXIV, April 20, 2021 (Posted: Apr-21-2021 8AM)

Skin imprints to provide noninvasive metabolic profiling of COVID-19 patients
J Delafiori et al, MEDRXIV, April 20, 2021 (Posted: Apr-21-2021 8AM)

Single-cell multi-omics analysis of the immune response in COVID-19
E Stephenson et al, Nature Medicine, April 20, 2021 (Posted: Apr-21-2021 7AM)

We identified expansion of nonclassical monocytes expressing complement transcripts (CD16+C1QA/B/C+) that sequester platelets and were predicted to replenish the alveolar macrophage pool in COVID-19. Early, uncommitted CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells were primed toward megakaryopoiesis, accompanied by expanded megakaryocyte-committed progenitors and increased platelet activation. Clonally expanded CD8+ T cells and an increased ratio of CD8+ effector T cells to effector memory T cells characterized severe disease, while circulating follicular helper T cells accompanied mild disease.

COVID-19 vaccine efficacy and effectiveness—the elephant (not) in the room
P Olliaro et al, The Lancet Microbe, April 20, 2021 (Posted: Apr-20-2021 6PM)

When communicating about vaccine efficacy, especially for public health decisions such as choosing the type of vaccines to purchase and deploy, having a full picture of what the data actually show is important, and ensuring comparisons are based on the combined evidence that puts vaccine trial results in context and not just looking at one summary measure, is also important.

COVID-19 Vaccines for People at Increased Risk for Severe Illness from COVID-19
CDC April 19, 2021 Brand (Posted: Apr-20-2021 8AM)

Adults of any age with certain underlying medical conditions are at increased risk for severe illness from the virus that causes COVID-19. COVID-19 vaccines are recommended for and can be administered to most people with underlying medical conditions.

Vaccine Considerations for People with Disabilities
CDC, April 19, 2021 Brand (Posted: Apr-20-2021 7AM)

What People with Disabilities and Care Providers Need to Know About COVID-19 Vaccines. This webpage provides information for people with disabilities or conditions that may increase their risk of getting and spreading COVID-19, and for their care providers.

Germline variants in UNC13D and AP3B1 are enriched in COVID-19 patients experiencing severe cytokine storms
H Luo et al, EJHG, April 19, 2021 (Posted: Apr-19-2021 9AM)

We conducted whole-exome sequencing in 233 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and identified four PID gene (UNC13D, AP3B1, RNF168, DHX58) variants were significantly enriched in COVID-19 patients experiencing severe cytokine storms. The total percentage of COVID-19 patients with variants in UNC13D or AP3B1, two typical HLH genes, was dramatically higher in high-level cytokine group than in low-level group (33.3 vs. 5.7%, P?<?0.001).

Prospective predictive performance comparison between Clinical Gestalt and validated COVID-19 mortality scores.
AS Mota et al, MEDRXIV, April 18, 2021 (Posted: Apr-19-2021 7AM)

Adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccination: machine learning and statistical approach to identify and classify incidences of morbidity and post-vaccination reactogenicity
MM Ahamad et al, MEDRXIV, April 18, 2021 (Posted: Apr-19-2021 7AM)

Can Social Media Data Be Utilized to Enhance Early Warning: Retrospective Analysis of the U.S. Covid-19 Pandemic
L Li et al, MEDRXIV< April 17, 2021 (Posted: Apr-18-2021 8AM)

Contact tracing apps for the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic literature review of challenges and future directions for neo-liberal societies
A Akinbi et al, Health Info and Systems, April 2021 (Posted: Apr-18-2021 7AM)

Sensitivity of rapid antigen testing and RT-PCR performed on nasopharyngeal swabs versus saliva samples in COVID-19 hospitalized patients: results of a prospective comparative trial (RESTART).
A Kritikos et al, MEDRXIV, April 15, 2021 (Posted: Apr-16-2021 7AM)

Protocol for the COG-UK hospital onset COVID-19 infection (HOCI) multicentre interventional clinical study: evaluating the efficacy of rapid genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 in limiting the spread of COVID-19 in United Kingdom NHS hospitals
J Blackstone et al, MEDRXIV, April 15, 2021 (Posted: Apr-16-2021 7AM)

Central obesity, smoking habit and hypertension are associated with a blunted serological response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccine
M Watanabe et al, MERXIV, April 15, 2021 (Posted: Apr-16-2021 7AM)

The impact of COVID-19 upon the delivery of exercise services within cystic fibrosis clinics in the United Kingdom
OW Tomlinson et al, MEDRXIV, April 16, 2021 (Posted: Apr-16-2021 7AM)

Spike Antibody Levels of Nursing Home Residents With or Without Prior COVID-19 3 Weeks After a Single BNT162b2 Vaccine Dose
H Blain et al, JAMA< April 15, 2021 (Posted: Apr-16-2021 6AM)

This preliminary study suggests that a single dose of BNT162b2 vaccine may be sufficient to obtain a high level of S-protein IgG antibody in nursing home residents previously diagnosed with COVID-19 based on RT-PCR results.

Experts Discuss COVID-19—Variants and Vaccine Efficacy, Immunosuppressed Patients, and More
JAMA Live Highlights, April 14, 2021 (Posted: Apr-14-2021 0PM)

Global Variants Report: Countries that have reported variants of SARS-CoV-2.
CDC, April 2021 Brand (Posted: Apr-14-2021 7AM)

A new SARS-CoV-2 variant has one or more mutations that differentiate it from predominant virus variants already circulating among the general population. Variants are expected to occur as viruses are constantly changing. Surveillance can help investigate how some variants may impact COVID-19 disease transmission or severity and the effectiveness of vaccines and therapeutics. CDC works with partners around the world to respond to the pandemic. As part of these efforts, CDC is working to expand the capacity to detect and respond to newly identified variants of the virus that causes COVID-19.

Moderna says protection from its COVID-19 vaccine still strong six months on
M Erman, Reuters, April 13, 2021 (Posted: Apr-14-2021 6AM)

Integrative approach identifies SLC6A20 and CXCR6 as putative causal genes for the COVID-19 GWAS signal in the 3p21.31 locus
S Kazela et al, MEDRXIV, April 13, 2021 (Posted: Apr-13-2021 0PM)

SARS-CoV-2 Detection from the Built Environment and Wastewater and Its Use for Hospital Surveillance
A Hinz et al, MEDRXIV< April 13, 2021 (Posted: Apr-13-2021 0PM)

We performed a prospective multi-center study of environmental sampling of SARS-CoV-2 from hospital surfaces and wastewater and evaluated their relationships with regional and hospital COVID-19 burden. We developed and validated a qPCR-based approach to surface sampling, and swab samples were collected weekly from different locations and surfaces across two tertiary care hospital campuses for a 10-week period during the pandemic, along with wastewater samples.

Stool-based Colorectal Cancer Screening in the COVID-19 Era
WD Dotson et al, CDC Blog, April, 12, 2021 Brand (Posted: Apr-13-2021 7AM)

The broad aftermath of the pandemic will be with us for many years to come. Some of the resulting changes can be positive, including an increased awareness of digital, genomic and other precision health technologies which may provide alternatives to traditional screening methods.

Genetic evidence for the association between COVID-19 epidemic severity and timing of non-pharmaceutical interventions
MR Cronin et al, Nature Comms, April 12, 2021 (Posted: Apr-13-2021 6AM)

We carried out a phylogenetic analysis of more than 29,000 publicly available whole genome SARS-CoV-2 sequences from 57 locations to estimate the time that the epidemic originated in different places. These estimates were examined in relation to the dates of the most stringent interventions in each location as well as to the number of cumulative COVID-19 deaths and phylodynamic estimates of epidemic size.

Remote Patient Monitoring — Overdue or Overused?
K Mecklai et al, NEJM, April 10, 2021 (Posted: Apr-12-2021 8AM)

The Covid-19 pandemic has challenged clinicians to find innovative ways to provide essential services while minimizing risks for themselves and their patients. These approaches increasingly leverage remote patient monitoring (RPM), using technology to support treatment for chronic conditions. As the use of RPM services grows, clinicians, payers, and patients face important questions regarding the volume, value, and appropriate use of this care model.

Early evidence of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness within the general population of California
K Andrekjo et al, MEDRXIV, April 10, 2021 (Posted: Apr-11-2021 1PM)

Among 325 cases, 23 (7%) and 13 (4%) received BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, respectively; 8 (2%) were fully vaccinated with either product. Among 260 controls, 49 (19%) and 49 (19%) received BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, respectively; 42 (16%) were fully vaccinated with either product. Among fully vaccinated individuals, vaccine effectiveness was 86%. Vaccine effectiveness was 66% and 78% one week following a first and second dose, respectively.

A National Open Genomics Consortium for the COVID-19 Response
CDC, April 9, 2021 Brand (Posted: Apr-10-2021 7AM)

The Advanced Molecular Detection (program established the SARS-CoV-2 Sequencing for Public Health Emergency Response, Epidemiology and Surveillance (SPHERES) to coordinate SARS-CoV-2 sequencing. The SPHERES collaboration includes scientists from clinical and public health laboratories, academic institutions, and the private sector. SPHERES will strengthen COVID-19 mitigation strategies.

IFNL4 genetic variant can predispose to COVID-19
JMR Saponi-Cortes et al, MEDRXIV, April 9, 2021 (Posted: Apr-10-2021 7AM)

Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 variants by convalescent and vaccinated serum
TA Bates et al, MEDRXIV, April 9, 2021 (Posted: Apr-10-2021 6AM)

We tested human sera from large, demographically balanced cohorts of BNT162b2 vaccine recipients (n=51) and COVID-19 patients (n=44) for neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. Although the effect is more pronounced in the vaccine cohort, both B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 show significantly reduced levels of neutralization by vaccinated and convalescent sera. Age is negatively correlated with neutralization in vaccine.

Reflections of COVID-19 cases on the wastewater loading of SARS-CoV-2 RNA: A case of three major cities of Gujarat, India
V Srivastava et al, MEDRXIV, April 10, 2021 (Posted: Apr-10-2021 6AM)

Actionable druggable genome-wide Mendelian randomization identifies repurposing opportunities for COVID-19
L Gaziano et al Nature Medicine, April 9, 2021 (Posted: Apr-10-2021 6AM)

To identify therapeutic targets relevant to COVID-19, we conducted Mendelian randomization analyses, deriving genetic instruments based on transcriptomic and proteomic data for 1,263 actionable proteins that are targeted by approved drugs or in clinical phase of drug development. Using summary statistics from the Host Genetics Initiative and the Million Veteran Program, we studied 7,554 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and >1 million controls. We found significant Mendelian randomization results for three proteins (ACE2, IFNAR2, and IL-10RB).

Development of a multivariable prediction model for severe COVID-19 disease: a population-based study from Hong Kong
J Zhou et al, NPJ Digital Medicine, April 8, 2021 (Posted: Apr-09-2021 7AM)

The study developed a simple risk score for predicting severe COVID-19 disease using data based on simple clinical and laboratory variables. Consecutive patients admitted to Hong Kong’s public hospitals. The primary outcome was composite intensive care unit admission, need for intubation or death with follow-up until 8 September 2020. An external independent cohort from Wuhan was used for model validation.

Suboptimal response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines in hematologic malignancies patients
M Agha et al, MEDRXIV, April 7, 2021 (Posted: Apr-09-2021 7AM)

Patients' and professionals' perspective of non-in-person visits in hereditary cancer: predictors and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
López-Fernández Adrià et al. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 2021 4 (Posted: Apr-08-2021 8AM)

The study sought to identify predictors of patient acceptance of non-in-person cancer genetic visits before and after the COVID-19 pandemic and assess the preferences of health-care professionals. Patients' reported acceptance for non-in-person visits after COVID-19 increased to 92% for the pretest and 85% for the post-test. Health-care professionals only preferred non-in-person visits for disclosure of negative results (83%).

Measuring voluntary and policy-induced social distancing behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Yan Youpei et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2021 4 (16) (Posted: Apr-07-2021 1PM)

Americans showed nontrivial voluntary behavioral changes in response to COVID-19 risk. The magnitude of voluntary response likely would have increased with increasing cases. Stay-at-home orders overlapped and replaced the voluntary response to cases. However, mandates kept more people home earlier in the epidemic, and epidemiological processes are sensitive to the magnitude and timing of behavioral changes.

Digital Health Passes in the Age of COVID-19- Are “Vaccine Passports” Lawful and Ethical?
LO Gostin et al, JAMA, April 7, 2021 (Posted: Apr-07-2021 11AM)

Digital health passes could become an important vehicle for a rapid return to commerce, recreation, and travel. To ensure their success, they must be scientifically well grounded and the least restrictive alternative. Above all, DHPs must be administered equitably, ensuring that everyone has a fair chance to return to a normal life.

Molecular Profiling of COVID-19 Autopsies Uncovers Novel Disease Mechanisms
E Pujadas et al, MEDRXIV, April 7, 2021 (Posted: Apr-07-2021 10AM)

Tracking COVID-19 in Pac-12 athletes using smartwatches
H Armitage, Stanford Blog, April 2021 (Posted: Apr-07-2021 6AM)

The association of ABO blood group with the asymptomatic COVID-19 cases in India
PP Singh et al, MEDRXIV< April 6, 2021 (Posted: Apr-07-2021 6AM)


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