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Hot Topics of the Day are picked by experts to capture the latest information and publications on public health genomics and precision health for various diseases and health topics. Sources include published scientific literature, reviews, blogs and popular press articles.

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133 hot topic(s) found with the query "Stroke "

Genetic underpinnings of recovery after stroke: an opportunity for gene discovery, risk stratification, and precision medicine.
Acosta Julián N et al. Genome medicine 2019 Sep (1) 58 (Posted: Sep-18-2019 9AM)


Men and Stroke
CDC, 2019 Brand (Posted: Aug-28-2019 8AM)


Recovering From a Stroke Can Be a Long Road, But Don’t Give Up
CDC Information, 2019 Brand (Posted: Aug-28-2019 7AM)

Clark ate healthy and was in good physical condition before the stroke, but he also had high blood pressure and high cholesterol, which may have been a part of his family history; his grandmother passed away from a stroke.


Risk of Ischemic Stroke and Peripheral Arterial Disease in Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A Meta-Analysis.
Akioyamen Leo E et al. Angiology 2019 Sep 70(8) 726-736 (Posted: Aug-21-2019 8AM)

Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) is a common genetic disorder predisposing affected individuals to lifelong low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) elevation and coronary heart disease. However, whether HeFH increases the risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and ischemic stroke is undetermined.


Association of APOL1 Risk Alleles with Cardiovascular Disease in African Americans in the Million Veteran Program.
Bick Alexander G et al. Circulation 2019 Jul (Posted: Jul-30-2019 8AM)

13% of African-Americans carry two copies of the APOL1 risk alleles, which are associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The study We sought to test the association of APOL1 G1/G2 alleles with coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease (PAD), and stroke among African American individuals in the Million Veteran Program (MVP).


Automating Ischemic Stroke Subtype Classification Using Machine Learning and Natural Language Processing.
Garg Ravi et al. Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association 2019 Jul 28(7) 2045-2051 (Posted: Jul-24-2019 10AM)


Elevated Lipoprotein(a) and Risk of Ischemic Stroke
A Langsted et al, JACC, July 2019 (Posted: Jul-03-2019 9AM)


Genomic risk score offers predictive performance comparable to clinical risk factors for ischaemic stroke
G Abraham et al, BioXRIV preprints, July 3, 2019 (Posted: Jul-03-2019 8AM)

Recent genome-wide association studies in stroke have enabled the generation of genomic risk scores (GRS) but the predictive power of these GRS has been modest in comparison to established stroke risk factors. Using the UK biobank data, a new polygenic risk score for ischemic stroke was published. Predictive performance of the score is at least comparable to established clinical risk factors.


Predictive analytics and machine learning in stroke and neurovascular medicine.
Saber Hamidreza et al. Neurological research 2019 Apr 1-10 (Posted: May-20-2019 8AM)


Stroke genetics: discovery, biology, and clinical applications.
Dichgans Martin et al. The Lancet. Neurology 2019 Apr (Posted: Apr-17-2019 9AM)


Machine Learning-Based Model for Prediction of Outcomes in Acute Stroke.
Heo JoonNyung et al. Stroke 2019 Mar STROKEAHA118024293 (Posted: Mar-27-2019 8AM)


Blood Biomarkers for Stroke Diagnosis and Management.
Kamtchum-Tatuene Joseph et al. Neuromolecular medicine 2019 Mar (Posted: Mar-06-2019 9AM)


Gene in Infamous Experiment on Embryos Points to New Stroke Treatment
K Weintraub, Scientific American, February 20, 2019 (Posted: Feb-22-2019 9AM)


Association Between ABCB1 Polymorphisms and Outcomes of Clopidogrel Treatment in Patients With Minor Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack- Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial
Y Pan et al, JAMA Neurology, February 11, 2019 (Posted: Feb-13-2019 8AM)


Matched Sibling Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation to Prevent Stroke in Children With Sickle Cell Anemia.
Kwiatkowski Janet L et al. JAMA 2019 Jan (3) 251-252 (Posted: Jan-24-2019 8AM)


Genetic risk, incident stroke, and the benefits of adhering to a healthy lifestyle: cohort study of 306 473 UK Biobank participants
LCA Rutten-Jacobs et al, BMJ, October 24, 2018 (Posted: Oct-25-2018 9AM)


A stroke gene panel for whole-exome sequencing
A Ilinca et al, EJHG, October 24, 2018 (Posted: Oct-24-2018 3PM)


Screening for Atrial Fibrillation With Electrocardiography: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.
Jonas Daniel E et al. JAMA 2018 Aug (5) 485-498 (Posted: Aug-09-2018 9AM)


Screening for Atrial Fibrillation With Electrocardiography: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.
et al. JAMA 2018 Aug (5) 478-484 (Posted: Aug-09-2018 9AM)


Genetic, laboratory and clinical risk factors in the development of overt ischemic stroke in children with sickle cell disease.
Belisário André Rolim et al. Hematology, transfusion and cell therapy 40(2) 166-181 (Posted: Aug-01-2018 10AM)


The Subtype Specificity of Genetic Loci Associated with Stroke in 16,664 cases and 32,792 controls
M Traylor et al, BioRxIV, July 20, 2018 (Posted: Jul-24-2018 8AM)


Validation of a Proteomic Biomarker Panel to Diagnose Minor-Stroke and Transient Ischaemic Attack: Phase 2 of SpecTRA, a Large Scale Translational Study.
Penn Andrew M et al. Biomarkers : biochemical indicators of exposure, response, and susceptibility to chemicals 2018 Jul 1-45 (Posted: Jul-18-2018 9AM)


Large-Scale Phenome-Wide Association Study of PCSK9 Variants Demonstrates Protection Against Ischemic Stroke.
Rao Abhiram S et al. Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine 2018 Jul (7) e002162 (Posted: Jul-16-2018 2PM)


New layers in research, treatment of sickle cell trait and stroke
American Heart Association News, June 19, 2018 (Posted: Jun-19-2018 11AM)


A “Prime Example” of How Stroke Can Happen to Anyone
Brand (Posted: May-08-2018 0PM)


Challenges and Opportunities in Stroke Genetics.
Malik Rainer et al. Cardiovascular research 2018 Mar (Posted: May-01-2018 3PM)


Genetics and Family History Can Increase Risk for Stroke
Brand (Posted: May-01-2018 2PM)


National Stroke Awareness Month 2018: Stroke Can Happen to Anyone at Any Time
Focus on increasing awareness among adults ages 35 to 64 of stroke risk factors, signs, and symptoms Brand (Posted: May-01-2018 2PM)


Multiancestry genome-wide association study of 520,000 subjects identifies 32 loci associated with stroke and stroke subtypes
R Malik et al, Nat Genet, Mar 12, 2018 (Posted: Mar-12-2018 2PM)


Genetic ancestry test beats self-reports in predicting bleeding stroke risk
American Heart Association Abstract, Jan 24, 2018 (Posted: Jan-25-2018 9AM)


Advancing stroke genomic research in the age of Trans-Omics big data science: Emerging priorities and opportunities.
Owolabi Mayowa et al. Journal of the neurological sciences 2017 Nov 18-28 (Posted: Nov-15-2017 9AM)


Large-scale phenome-wide association study of PCSK9 loss-of-function variants demonstrates protection against ischemic stroke
AC Rao et al, BioRXiv preprints, Oct 2017 (Posted: Oct-29-2017 10AM)


The Involvement of miRNA in Carotid-Related Stroke.
Maitrias Pierre et al. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 2017 Sep (9) 1608-1617 (Posted: Oct-19-2017 2PM)


Genetic signatures in ischemic stroke: Focus on aspirin resistance.
Munshi Anjana et al. CNS & neurological disorders drug targets 2017 Oct (Posted: Oct-19-2017 2PM)


Association of a Family History of Atrial Fibrillation With Incidence and Outcomes of Atrial Fibrillation: A Population-Based Family Cohort Study.
Chang Shang-Hung et al. JAMA cardiology 2017 Aug (8) 863-870 (Posted: Sep-24-2017 6AM)


Preventing Stroke Deaths
CDC Vital Signs, Sep 6, 2017 Brand (Posted: Sep-06-2017 2PM)


Biomarkers of stroke recovery: Consensus-based core recommendations from the Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable.
Boyd Lara A et al. International journal of stroke : official journal of the International Stroke Society 2017 Jul 12(5) 480-493 (Posted: Jul-19-2017 8AM)


Aspirin to Prevent a First Heart Attack or Stroke
NHLBI, 2017 Brand (Posted: Jul-13-2017 1PM)


Conditions that increase the risk of stroke include genetic diseases such as Sickle cell disease
Brand (Posted: May-09-2017 1PM)


20th Workshop of the International Stroke Genetics Consortium, November 3-4, 2016, Milan, Italy: 2016.036 ISGC research priorities.
Woo Daniel et al. Neurology. Genetics 2017 Mar (1 Suppl 1) S12-S18 (Posted: May-01-2017 10AM)


Genome-based cholesterol drug boosts heart health Treatment reduces the risk of heart attack and stroke, but might not live up to outsized expectations.
H Ledford, Nature News, March 18 2017 (Posted: Mar-20-2017 4PM)


PCOS and Diabetes, Heart Disease, Stroke...
Brand (Posted: Feb-10-2017 2PM)


Factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of Stroke.
Lima Maria Jose Melo Ramos et al. Revista latino-americana de enfermagem 2016 Nov 24e2814 (Posted: Nov-30-2016 11AM)


World Stroke Day: We Can Prevent Stroke
Brand (Posted: Oct-24-2016 2PM)


Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease - Past Successes and Future Challenges.
Meier Emily Riehm et al. Pediatric research 2016 Oct (Posted: Oct-20-2016 3PM)


Can the cardiovascular family history reported by our patients be trusted? The Norwegian Stroke in the Young Study.
Øygarden H et al. European journal of neurology 2016 Jan 23(1) 154-9 (Posted: Sep-07-2016 10AM)


Thousands of genes responsible for inherited risk for MI, stroke identified in specific tissues
Franzen O et al, Cardiology Today, August 2016 (Posted: Aug-29-2016 8AM)


Precision Medicine for Ischemic Stroke.
Rostanski Sara K et al. JAMA neurology 2016 Jul (7) 773-4 (Posted: Jul-25-2016 9PM)


Mind Your Risks and Act FAST to Prevent and Treat Strokes
CDC Public Health Grand Rounds, May 2016 Brand (Posted: May-10-2016 10AM)


Understanding Stroke Risk in Women
Brand (Posted: May-10-2016 8AM)


Genetic susceptibility to cerebrovascular disease.
Della-Morte David et al. Current opinion in lipidology 2016 Apr (2) 187-95 (Posted: May-02-2016 9AM)


Genetics as a molecular window into recovery, its treatment, and stress responses after stroke.
Juth Vanessa et al. Journal of investigative medicine : the official publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research 2016 Apr (Posted: May-02-2016 9AM)


Stop Stroke at Any Age
Brand (Posted: May-02-2016 9AM)


Genetic influences on the risk of stroke
Genomics Education UK, April 18, 2016 (Posted: Apr-18-2016 3PM)


What is Tay-Sachs Disease?
Information from the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke Brand (Posted: Dec-29-2015 8PM)


A diagnostic approach for cerebral palsy in the genomic era.
Lee Ryan W et al. Neuromolecular medicine 2014 Dec (4) 821-44 (Posted: Dec-10-2015 5PM)


Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States and is a major cause of adult disability
Brand (Posted: Oct-26-2015 4PM)


Heritability of young- and old-onset ischaemic stroke.
Bluher A et al. European journal of neurology : the official journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies 2015 Nov (11) 1488-91 (Posted: Oct-26-2015 0PM)


Genome-wide association study on progression of carotid artery intima media thickness over 10 years in a Chinese cohort.
Xie Gaoqiang et al. Atherosclerosis 2015 Nov (1) 30-7 (Posted: Oct-26-2015 0PM)


Differences in Common Genetic Predisposition to Ischemic Stroke by Age and Sex.
Traylor Matthew et al. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation 2015 Oct (Posted: Oct-26-2015 0PM)


Universal versus genotype-guided use of direct oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation patients: a decision analysis.
You Joyce Hs et al. Pharmacogenomics 2015 Jul 31. 1-12 (Posted: Aug-04-2015 2PM)


Comparison of Atrial Fibrillation Guidelines.
Overvad Thure Filskov et al. J Gen Intern Med 2015 May 5. (Posted: Jun-21-2015 7PM)


Clinical Benefit of American College of Chest Physicians Versus European Society of Cardiology Guidelines for Stroke Prophylaxis in Atrial Fibrillation.
Andrade Ambar A et al. J Gen Intern Med 2015 May 7. (Posted: Jun-21-2015 7PM)


Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: a systematic review.
Lip Gregory Y H et al. JAMA 2015 May 19. (19) 1950-62 (Posted: Jun-21-2015 7PM)


Implementing Guidelines: The Cost and Clinical Impact of Anticoagulants in the UK Atrial Fibrillation Population.
Shields Gemma E et al. Appl Health Econ Health Policy 2015 Jun 16. (Posted: Jun-21-2015 7PM)


Stroke with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter: a descriptive population-based study from the Brest stroke registry.
Jannou Virginie et al. BMC Geriatr 2015 (1) 63 (Posted: Jun-21-2015 7PM)


Stroke genomics in people of African ancestry: charting new paths.
Akinyemi R O et al. Cardiovasc J Afr 2015 Mar-Apr (2 Suppl 1) S39-49 (Posted: May-26-2015 1PM)


Familial risk for common diseases in primary care: the Family Healthware Impact Trial.
O'Neill Suzanne M et al. Am J Prev Med 2009 Jun (6) 506-14 (Posted: May-14-2015 11AM)


Family history and perceptions about risk and prevention for chronic diseases in primary care: a report from the family healthware impact trial.
Acheson Louise S et al. Genet. Med. 2010 Apr (4) 212-8 (Posted: May-14-2015 11AM)


Effect of preventive messages tailored to family history on health behaviors: the Family Healthware Impact Trial.
Ruffin Mack T et al. Ann Fam Med 2011 Jan-Feb (1) 3-11 (Posted: May-14-2015 11AM)


Health beliefs among individuals at increased familial risk for type 2 diabetes: implications for prevention.
Dorman Janice S et al. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2012 May (2) 156-62 (Posted: May-14-2015 11AM)


Check out genetic conditions and tests associated with stroke
from the NIH Genetic Testing Registry Brand (Posted: May-06-2015 4PM)


CYP2C8 rs17110453 and EPHX2 rs751141 two-locus interaction increases susceptibility to ischemic stroke.
Yi Xingyang et al. Gene 2015 Jul 1. (1) 85-9 (Posted: May-05-2015 10AM)


Association between the FGB gene polymorphism and ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis.
Zhang X F et al. Genet. Mol. Res. 2015 (1) 1741-7 (Posted: May-05-2015 10AM)


Tobacco smoking strongly modifies the association of prothrombin G20210A with undetermined stroke: Consecutive survivors and population-based controls.
Krajcoviechova A et al. Atherosclerosis 2015 Apr 11. (2) 446-452 (Posted: May-05-2015 10AM)


The Association between Carbohydrate-Rich Foods and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Is Not Modified by Genetic Susceptibility to Dyslipidemia as Determined by 80 Validated Variants.
Sonestedt Emily et al. PLoS ONE 2015 (4) e0126104 (Posted: May-05-2015 10AM)


Genetic factors in cerebral small vessel disease and their impact on stroke and dementia.
Haffner Christof et al. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 2015 Apr 22. (Posted: May-05-2015 10AM)


No Additional Prognostic Value of Genetic Information in the Prediction of Vascular Events after Cerebral Ischemia of Arterial Origin: The PROMISe Study.
Achterberg Sefanja et al. PLoS ONE 2015 (4) e0119203 (Posted: May-05-2015 10AM)


Tackling shared genetic underpinnings of migraine and ischemic stroke.
Debette Stéphanie et al. Neurology 2015 May 1. (Posted: May-05-2015 10AM)


Shared genetic basis for migraine and ischemic stroke: A genome-wide analysis of common variants.
Malik Rainer et al. Neurology 2015 May 1. (Posted: May-05-2015 10AM)


Stroke in sickle cell anemia patients: a need for multidisciplinary approaches.
Menaa Farid et al. Atherosclerosis 2013 Aug (2) 496-503 (Posted: May-01-2015 11AM)


Costs of pediatric stroke care in the United States: a systematic and contemporary review.
Ellis Charles et al. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res 2014 Oct (5) 643-50 (Posted: May-01-2015 11AM)


Strokes in children: a systematic review.
Gumer Lindsey Barst et al. Pediatr Emerg Care 2014 Sep (9) 660-4 (Posted: May-01-2015 11AM)


Proteomic and biomarker studies and neurological complications of pediatric sickle cell disease.
Lance Eboni I et al. Proteomics Clin Appl 2014 Dec (11-12) 813-27 (Posted: May-01-2015 11AM)


Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene A1298C polymorphism in pediatric stroke--case-control and family-based study.
Balcerzyk Anna et al. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2015 Jan (1) 61-5 (Posted: May-01-2015 11AM)


Systematic review: hereditary thrombophilia associated to pediatric strokes and cerebral palsy.
Torres Vinicius M et al. J Pediatr (Rio J) 2015 Jan-Feb (1) 22-9 (Posted: May-01-2015 11AM)


Paediatric stroke: pressing issues and promising directions.
Kirton Adam et al. Lancet Neurol 2015 Jan (1) 92-102 (Posted: May-01-2015 11AM)


What causes stroke in children?
From the American Stroke Association (Posted: May-01-2015 10AM)


Genome-wide association studies of late-onset cardiovascular disease.
Smith J Gustav et al. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 2015 Apr 11. (Posted: May-01-2015 9AM)


Systematic review: hereditary thrombophilia associated to pediatric strokes and cerebral palsy.
Torres Vinicius M et al. J Pediatr (Rio J) 2015 Jan-Feb (1) 22-9 (Posted: Mar-25-2015 10AM)


Quantitative assessment of association between rs1801133 polymorphism and susceptibility to stroke.
Zhang Wei et al. Cell Biochem. Biophys. 2015 Jan (1) 85-98 (Posted: Mar-16-2015 1PM)


Folate Supplements for Stroke Prevention - Targeted Trial Trumps the Rest
M Stampfer et al. JAMA< March 12, 2015 (Posted: Mar-16-2015 1PM)


Next Generation Sequencing for Systematic Assessment of Genetics of Small-Vessel Disease and Lacunar Stroke.
Bersano Anna et al. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2015 Feb 26. (Posted: Mar-16-2015 9AM)


Cytochrome 4A11 Genetic Polymorphisms Increase Susceptibility to Ischemic Stroke and Associate with Atherothrombotic Events After Stroke in Chinese.
Zhang Biao et al. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 2015 Mar 3. (Posted: Mar-16-2015 9AM)


Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention.
Smajlovic Dževdet et al. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2015 157-164 (Posted: Mar-16-2015 9AM)


Genome-wide meta-analysis of homocysteine and methionine metabolism identifies five one carbon metabolism loci and a novel association of ALDH1L1 with ischemic stroke.
Williams Stephen R et al. PLoS Genet. 2014 Mar (3) e1004214 (Posted: Mar-16-2015 9AM)


Tagging SNPs in the MTHFR gene and risk of ischemic stroke in a Chinese population.
Zhou Bao-Sheng et al. Int J Mol Sci 2014 (5) 8931-40 (Posted: Mar-16-2015 9AM)


Signaling pathway genes for blood pressure, folate and cholesterol levels among hypertensives: an epistasis analysis.
Wei L K et al. J Hum Hypertens 2015 Feb (2) 99-104 (Posted: Mar-16-2015 9AM)


Genetic Associations with Plasma B12, B6, and Folate Levels in an Ischemic Stroke Population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) Trial.
Keene Keith L et al. Front Public Health 2014 112 (Posted: Mar-16-2015 9AM)


Association of Reduced Folate Carrier-1 (RFC-1) Polymorphisms with Ischemic Stroke and Silent Brain Infarction.
Cho Yunkyung et al. PLoS ONE 2015 (2) e0115295 (Posted: Mar-16-2015 9AM)


Efficacy of Folic Acid Therapy in Primary Prevention of Stroke Among Adults With Hypertension in ChinaThe CSPPT Randomized Clinical Trial
Y Huo et al. JAMA, March 12, 2015 (Posted: Mar-16-2015 9AM)


Rett Syndrome Fact Sheet
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Brand (Posted: Mar-04-2015 9AM)


CDC Information: Sickle cell disease complications include stroke
Brand (Posted: Feb-25-2015 0PM)


CDC Stroke Facts
Brand (Posted: Feb-25-2015 0PM)


Family health history and other characteristics increase risk for stroke
Brand (Posted: Feb-25-2015 0PM)


Aspirin to Reduce Cancer Risk
Brand (Posted: Jan-11-2014 11AM)

In the United States, tens of millions of adults take aspirin to reduce their risk of heart attack or stroke. But studies over the last two decades have suggested that regular use of aspirin may have another important benefit: decreasing the risk of developing or dying from some types of cancer. Results from some of these studies, in fact, formed the basis for guidance released in April 2016Exit Disclaimer by an influential federal advisory panel on disease prevention. The panel, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), recommended that, for some people, aspirin can be used to help reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer. Several researchers who conducted some of the seminal studies on which the USPSTF based its guidance stressed the importance of the panel?s actions. Writing in Nature Reviews Cancer, Andrew Chan, M.D., of Harvard Medical School, and several colleagues called the recommendation a "crucial first step in realizing a potential broader population-wide impact of aspirin use" for cancer prevention. The USPSTF recommendations are far from sweeping, however. And researchers are continuing to investigate critical questions, including just how aspirin may reduce colorectal cancer risk and what other cancers, if any, regular use of this century-old drug may help to prevent. The findings from these studies should help to fill an important informational void. At least one study suggests that, even before the USPSTF made its recommendations, Americans were buying in to the idea of aspirin's anticancer potential; in that 2015 study, 18% of Americans who were taking aspirin regularly said they were doing so to help prevent cancer.


Peripheral Artery Disease
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-11-2014 11AM)

Also known as P.A.D. What Is Peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.) is a disease in which plaque builds up in the arteries that carry blood to your head, organs, and limbs. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, fibrous tissue, and other substances in the blood. When plaque builds up in the body's arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis. Over time, plaque can harden and narrow the arteries. This limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and other parts of your body. P.A.D. usually affects the arteries in the legs, but it also can affect the arteries that carry blood from your heart to your head, arms, kidneys, and stomach. This article focuses on P.A.D. that affects blood flow to the legs. Normal Artery and Artery With Plaque Buildup The illustration shows how P.A.D. can affect arteries in the legs. Figure A shows a normal artery with normal blood flow. The inset image shows a cross-section of the normal artery. Figure B shows an artery with plaque buildup that's partially blocking blood flow. The inset image shows a cross-section of the narrowed artery. The illustration shows how P.A.D. can affect arteries in the legs. Figure A shows a normal artery with normal blood flow. The inset image shows a cross-section of the normal artery. Figure B shows an artery with plaque buildup that&#039;s partially blocking blood flow. The inset image shows a cross-section of the narrowed artery. Overview Blocked blood flow to your legs can cause pain and numbness. It also can raise your risk of getting an infection in the affected limbs. Your body may have a hard time fighting the infection. If severe enough, blocked blood flow can cause gangrene (tissue death). In very serious cases, this can lead to leg amputation. If you have leg pain when you walk or climb stairs, talk with your doctor. Sometimes older people think that leg pain is just a symptom of aging. However, the cause of the pain could be P.A.D. Tell your doctor if you're feeling pain in your legs and discuss whether you should be tested for P.A.D. Smoking is the main risk factor for P.A.D. If you smoke or have a history of smoking, your risk of P.A.D. increases. Other factors, such as age and having certain diseases or conditions, also increase your risk of P.A.D. Outlook P.A.D. increases your risk of coronary heart disease, heart attack, stroke, and transient ischemic attack ("mini-stroke"). Although P.A.D. is serious, it's treatable. If you have the disease, see your doctor regularly and treat the underlying atherosclerosis. P.A.D. treatment may slow or stop disease progress and reduce the risk of complications. Treatments include lifestyle changes, medicines, and surgery or procedures. Researchers continue to explore new therapies for P.A.D. Other Names ?Atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease ?Claudication ?Hardening of the arteries ?Leg cramps from poor circulation ?Peripheral arterial disease ?Peripheral vascular disease ?Poor circulation ?Vascular disease


Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-11-2014 11AM)

What Is Antiphospholipid (AN-te-fos-fo-LIP-id) antibody syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder. Autoimmune disorders occur if the body's immune system makes antibodies that attack and damage tissues or cells. Antibodies are a type of protein. They usually help defend the body against infections. In APS, however, the body makes antibodies that mistakenly attack phospholipids?a type of fat. Phospholipids are found in all living cells and cell membranes, including blood cells and the lining of blood vessels. When antibodies attack phospholipids, cells are damaged. This damage causes blood clots to form in the body's arteries and veins. (These are the vessels that carry blood to your heart and body.) Usually, blood clotting is a normal bodily process. Blood clots help seal small cuts or breaks on blood vessel walls. This prevents you from losing too much blood. In APS, however, too much blood clotting can block blood flow and damage the body's organs. Overview Some people have APS antibodies, but don't ever have signs or symptoms of the disorder. Having APS antibodies doesn't mean that you have APS. To be diagnosed with APS, you must have APS antibodies and a history of health problems related to the disorder. APS can lead to many health problems, such as stroke, heart attack, kidney damage, deep vein thrombosis (throm-BO-sis), and pulmonary embolism (PULL-mun-ary EM-bo-lizm). APS also can cause pregnancy-related problems, such as multiple miscarriages, a miscarriage late in pregnancy, or a premature birth due to eclampsia (ek-LAMP-se-ah). (Eclampsia, which follows preeclampsia, is a serious condition that causes seizures in pregnant women.) Very rarely, some people who have APS develop many blood clots within weeks or months. This condition is called catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS). People who have APS also are at higher risk for thrombocytopenia (THROM-bo-si-to-PE-ne-ah). This is a condition in which your blood has a lower than normal number of blood cell fragments called platelets (PLATE-lets). Antibodies destroy the platelets, or they?re used up during the clotting process. Mild to serious bleeding can occur with thrombocytopenia. APS can be fatal. Death may occur as a result of large blood clots or blood clots in the heart, lungs, or brain. Outlook APS can affect people of any age. However, it's more common in women and people who have other autoimmune or rheumatic (ru-MAT-ik) disorders, such as lupus. ("Rheumatic" refers to disorders that affect the joints, bones, or muscles.) APS has no cure, but medicines can help prevent its complications. Medicines are used to stop blood clots from forming. They also are used to keep existing clots from getting larger. Treatment for APS is long term. If you have APS and another autoimmune disorder, it's important to control that condition as well. When the other condition is controlled, APS may cause fewer problems.


Polycythemia Vera
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

Polycythemia vera (POL-e-si-THEE-me-ah VAY-rah or VE-rah), or PV, is a rare blood disease in which your body makes too many red blood cells. The extra red blood cells make your blood thicker than normal. As a result, blood clots can form more easily. These clots can block blood flow through your arteries and veins, which can cause a heart attack or stroke. Thicker blood also doesn't flow as quickly to your body as normal blood. Slowed blood flow prevents your organs from getting enough oxygen, which can cause serious problems, such as angina (an-JI-nuh or AN-juh-nuh) and heart failure. (Angina is chest pain or discomfort.) Overview Red blood cells carry oxygen to all parts of your body. They also remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body's cells and carry it to the lungs to be exhaled. Red blood cells are made in your bone marrow?a sponge-like tissue inside the bones. White blood cells and platelets (PLATE-lets) also are made in your bone marrow. White blood cells help fight infection. Platelets stick together to seal small cuts or breaks on blood vessel walls and stop bleeding. If you have PV, your bone marrow makes too many red blood cells. It also can make too many white blood cells and platelets. A mutation, or change, in the body's JAK2 gene is the major cause of PV. This gene makes a protein that helps the body produce blood cells. What causes the change in the JAK2 gene isn't known. PV generally isn't inherited?that is, passed from parents to children through genes. PV develops slowly and may not cause symptoms for years. The disease often is found during routine blood tests done for other reasons. When signs and symptoms are present, they're the result of the thick blood that occurs with PV. This thickness slows the flow of oxygen-rich blood to all parts of your body. Without enough oxygen, many parts of your body won't work normally. For example, slower blood flow deprives your arms, legs, lungs, and eyes of the oxygen they need. This can cause headaches, dizziness, itching, and vision problems, such as blurred or double vision. Outlook PV is a serious, chronic (ongoing) disease that can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated. PV has no cure, but treatments can help control the disease and its complications. PV is treated with procedures, medicines, and other methods. You may need one or more treatments to manage the disease. Other Names ?Cryptogenic (KRIP-to-JEN-ik) polycythemia ?Erythremia (ER-ih-THRE-me-ah) ?Erythrocytosis (eh-RITH-ro-si-TO-sis) megalosplenica (MEG-ah-lo-SPLE-ne-kah) ?Myelopathic (MY-e-lo-PATH-ik) polycythemia ?Myeloproliferative (MY-e-lo-pro-LIF-er-ah-tiv) disorder ?Osler disease ?Polycythemia rubra vera ?Polycythemia with chronic cyanosis (SI-ah-NO-sis) ?Primary polycythemia ?Splenomegalic (SPLE-no-me-GA-lic) polycythemia ?Vaquez disease


Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

What Is Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare blood disorder. In TTP, blood clots form in small blood vessels throughout the body. The clots can limit or block the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the body's organs, such as the brain, kidneys, and heart. As a result, serious health problems can develop. The increased clotting that occurs in TTP also uses up platelets (PLATE-lets) in the blood. Platelets are blood cell fragments that help form blood clots. These cell fragments stick together to seal small cuts and breaks on blood vessel walls and stop bleeding. With fewer platelets available in the blood, bleeding problems can occur. People who have TTP may bleed inside their bodies, underneath the skin, or from the surface of the skin. When cut or injured, they also may bleed longer than normal. "Thrombotic" (throm-BOT-ik) refers to the blood clots that form. "Thrombocytopenic" (throm-bo-cy-toe-PEE-nick) means the blood has a lower than normal number of platelets. "Purpura" (PURR-purr-ah) refers to purple bruises caused by bleeding under the skin. Bleeding under the skin also can cause tiny red or purple dots on the skin. These pinpoint-sized dots are called petechiae (peh-TEE-kee-ay). Petechiae may look like a rash. Purpura and Petechiae The photograph shows purpura (bruises) and petechiae (red and purple dots) on the skin. The photograph shows purpura (bruises) and petechiae (red and purple dots) on the skin. Bleeding under the skin causes the purple, brown, and red color of the purpura and petechiae. TTP also can cause red blood cells to break apart faster than the body can replace them. This leads to hemolytic anemia (HEE-moh-lit-ick uh-NEE-me-uh)?a rare form of anemia. Anemia is a condition in which the body has a lower than normal number of red blood cells. A lack of activity in the ADAMTS13 enzyme (a type of protein in the blood) causes TTP. The ADAMTS13 gene controls the enzyme, which is involved in blood clotting. The enzyme breaks up a large protein called von Willebrand factor that clumps together with platelets to form blood clots. Types of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura The two main types of TTP are inherited and acquired. "Inherited" means the condition is passed from parents to children through genes. This type of TTP mainly affects newborns and children. In inherited TTP, the ADAMTS13 gene is faulty and doesn't prompt the body to make a normal ADAMTS13 enzyme. As a result, enzyme activity is lacking or changed. Acquired TTP is the more common type of the disorder. "Acquired" means you aren't born with the disorder, but you develop it. This type of TTP mostly occurs in adults, but it can affect children. In acquired TTP, the ADAMTS13 gene isn't faulty. Instead, the body makes antibodies (proteins) that block the activity of the ADAMTS13 enzyme. It's not clear what triggers inherited and acquired TTP, but some factors may play a role. These factors may include: ?Some diseases and conditions, such as pregnancy, cancer, HIV, lupus, and infections ?Some medical procedures, such as surgery and blood and marrow stem cell transplant ?Some medicines, such as chemotherapy, ticlopidine, clopidogrel, cyclosporine A, and hormone therapy and estrogens ?Quinine, which is a substance often found in tonic water and nutritional health products If you have TTP, you may sometimes hear it referred to as TTP?HUS. HUS, or hemolytic-uremic syndrome, is a disorder that resembles TTP, but is more common in children. Kidney problems also tend to be worse in HUS. Although some researchers think TTP and HUS are two forms of a single syndrome, recent evidence suggests that each has different causes. Outlook TTP is a rare disorder. It can be fatal or cause lasting damage, such as brain damage or a stroke, if it's not treated right away. TTP usually occurs suddenly and lasts for days or weeks, but it can continue for months. Relapses (or flareups) can occur in up to 60 percent of people who have the acquired type of TTP. Many people who have inherited TTP have frequent flareups that need to be treated. Treatments for TTP include infusions of fresh frozen plasma and plasma exchange, also called plasmapheresis (PLAZ-ma-feh-RE-sis). These treatments have greatly improved the outlook of the disorder. Other Names Inherited Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura ?Familial thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura ?Upshaw-Schulman syndrome (USS) Acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura ?Moschcowitz disease ?Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia If you have TTP, you may sometimes hear it referred to as TTP?HUS. HUS, or hemolytic-uremic syndrome, is a disorder that resembles TTP, but is more common in children. Kidney problems also tend to be worse in HUS. Although some researchers think TTP and HUS are two forms of a single syndrome, recent evidence suggests that each has different causes.


Atherosclerosis
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

Also known as Arteriosclerosis, Hardening of arteries What Is Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to your heart and other parts of your body. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. Over time, plaque hardens and narrows your arteries. This limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and other parts of your body. Atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems, including heart attack, stroke, or even death. Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis diagram.Figure A shows a normal artery with normal blood flow. The inset image shows a cross-section of a normal artery. Figure B shows an artery with plaque buildup. The inset image shows a cross-section of an artery with plaque buildup. Atherosclerosis-Related Diseases Atherosclerosis can affect any artery in the body, including arteries in the heart, brain, arms, legs, pelvis, and kidneys. As a result, different diseases may develop based on which arteries are affected. Coronary Heart Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease, occurs when plaque builds up in the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart. Plaque narrows the coronary arteries and reduces blood flow to your heart muscle. Plaque buildup also makes it more likely that blood clots will form in your arteries. Blood clots can partially or completely block blood flow. If blood flow to your heart muscle is reduced or blocked, you may have angina (chest pain or discomfort) or a heart attack. Plaque also can form in the heart's smallest arteries. This disease is called coronary microvascular disease (MVD). In coronary MVD, plaque doesn't cause blockages in the arteries as it does in CHD. Carotid Artery Disease Carotid (ka-ROT-id) artery disease occurs if plaque builds up in the arteries on each side of your neck (the carotid arteries). These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your brain. If blood flow to your brain is reduced or blocked, you may have a stroke. Peripheral Artery Disease Peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.) occurs if plaque builds up in the major arteries that supply oxygen-rich blood to your legs, arms, and pelvis. If blood flow to these parts of your body is reduced or blocked, you may have numbness, pain, and, sometimes, dangerous infections. Chronic Kidney Disease Chronic kidney disease can occur if plaque builds up in the renal arteries. These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your kidneys. Over time, chronic kidney disease causes a slow loss of kidney function. The main function of the kidneys is to remove waste and extra water from the body. Overview The cause of atherosclerosis isn't known. However, certain traits, conditions, or habits may raise your risk for the disease. These conditions are known as risk factors. You can control some risk factors, such as lack of physical activity, smoking, and an unhealthy diet. Others you can't control, such as age and a family history of heart disease. Some people who have atherosclerosis have no signs or symptoms. They may not be diagnosed until after a heart attack or stroke. The main treatment for atherosclerosis is lifestyle changes. You also may need medicines and medical procedures. These treatments, along with ongoing medical care, can help you live a healthier life. Outlook Improved treatments have reduced the number of deaths from atherosclerosis-related diseases. These treatments also have improved the quality of life for people who have these diseases. However, atherosclerosis remains a common health problem. You may be able to prevent or delay atherosclerosis and the diseases it can cause. Making lifestyle changes and getting ongoing care can help you avoid the problems of atherosclerosis and live a long, healthy life. Other Names ?Arteriosclerosis ?Hardening of the arteries


Atrial Fibrillation
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

What Is Atrial fibrillation (A-tre-al fi-bri-LA-shun), or AF, is the most common type of arrhythmia (ah-RITH-me-ah). An arrhythmia is a problem with the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat. During an arrhythmia, the heart can beat too fast, too slow, or with an irregular rhythm. AF occurs if rapid, disorganized electrical signals cause the heart's two upper chambers?called the atria (AY-tree-uh)?to fibrillate. The term "fibrillate" means to contract very fast and irregularly. In AF, blood pools in the atria. It isn't pumped completely into the heart's two lower chambers, called the ventricles (VEN-trih-kuls). As a result, the heart's upper and lower chambers don't work together as they should. People who have AF may not feel symptoms. However, even when AF isn't noticed, it can increase the risk of stroke. In some people, AF can cause chest pain or heart failure, especially if the heart rhythm is very rapid. AF may happen rarely or every now and then, or it may become an ongoing or long-term heart problem that lasts for years. Understanding the Heart's Electrical System To understand AF, it helps to understand the heart's internal electrical system. The heart's electrical system controls the rate and rhythm of the heartbeat. With each heartbeat, an electrical signal spreads from the top of the heart to the bottom. As the signal travels, it causes the heart to contract and pump blood. Each electrical signal begins in a group of cells called the sinus node or sinoatrial (SA) node. The SA node is located in the right atrium. In a healthy adult heart at rest, the SA node sends an electrical signal to begin a new heartbeat 60 to 100 times a minute. (This rate may be slower in very fit athletes.) From the SA node, the electrical signal travels through the right and left atria. It causes the atria to contract and pump blood into the ventricles. The electrical signal then moves down to a group of cells called the atrioventricular (AV) node, located between the atria and the ventricles. Here, the signal slows down slightly, allowing the ventricles time to finish filling with blood. The electrical signal then leaves the AV node and travels to the ventricles. It causes the ventricles to contract and pump blood to the lungs and the rest of the body. The ventricles then relax, and the heartbeat process starts all over again in the SA node. For more information about the heart's electrical system and detailed animations, go to the Diseases and Conditions Index How the Heart Works article. Understanding the Electrical Problem in Atrial Fibrillation In AF, the heart's electrical signals don't begin in the SA node. Instead, they begin in another part of the atria or in the nearby pulmonary veins. The signals don't travel normally. They may spread throughout the atria in a rapid, disorganized way. This can cause the atria to fibrillate. The faulty signals flood the AV node with electrical impulses. As a result, the ventricles also begin to beat very fast. However, the AV node can't send the signals to the ventricles as fast as they arrive. So, even though the ventricles are beating faster than normal, they aren't beating as fast as the atria. Thus, the atria and ventricles no longer beat in a coordinated way. This creates a fast and irregular heart rhythm. In AF, the ventricles may beat 100 to 175 times a minute, in contrast to the normal rate of 60 to 100 beats a minute. If this happens, blood isn't pumped into the ventricles as well as it should be. Also, the amount of blood pumped out of the ventricles to the body is based on the random atrial beats. The body may get rapid, small amounts of blood and occasional larger amounts of blood. The amount will depend on how much blood has flowed from the atria to the ventricles with each beat. Most of the symptoms of AF are related to how fast the heart is beating. If medicines or age slow the heart rate, the symptoms are minimized. AF may be brief, with symptoms that come and go and end on their own. Or, the condition may be ongoing and require treatment. Sometimes AF is permanent, and medicines or other treatments can't restore a normal heart rhythm. Outlook People who have AF can live normal, active lives. For some people, treatment can restore normal heart rhythms. For people who have permanent AF, treatment can help control symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment may include medicines, medical procedures, and lifestyle changes. Other Names ?A fib ?Auricular fibrillation


Cardioversion
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

Cardioversion is a procedure that uses external electric shocks to restore a normal heart rhythm. Overview Cardioversion is called defibrillation when it is done in an emergency to prevent death due to potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias that can result in sudden cardiac arrest. Alternatively, your doctor can schedule cardioversion as a way to treat arrhythmias in the upper chambers of your heart called atrial fibrillation. If untreated, atrial fibrillation can increase your risk for stroke and heart failure. Scheduled cardioversion procedures may be done in a hospital or other health care facility by cardiologists, or doctors who specialize in the heart. While the procedure takes only a few minutes, it requires that you arrive a few hours before the procedure. To prepare, you will be given anesthesia through an intravenous (IV) line in your arm to make you fall asleep, and you will have electrodes placed on your chest and possibly your back. These electrodes will be attached to the cardioversion machine. The machine will record your heart?s electrical activity and send the shocks to your heart. When ready, the doctor will send one or more brief, low-energy shocks to your heart to restore a normal rhythm. You will not feel any pain from the shocks. You will need to stay for a few hours after your procedure. During this time, your health care team will monitor your heart rhythm and blood pressure closely and watch for complications. You will need a ride home because of the medicines or anesthesia you received. You may have some redness or soreness where the electrodes were placed. You also may have slight bruising where the IV line was inserted in your arm. Although uncommon, cardioversion has some risks. It can cause or worsen life-threatening arrhythmias that will need to be treated. This procedure can cause blood clots to break away and travel from the heart to other tissues or organs and cause a stroke or other problems. Taking anticlotting medicines before and after cardioversion can reduce this risk.


Carotid Artery Disease
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

What Is Carotid artery disease is a disease in which a waxy substance called plaque builds up inside the carotid arteries. You have two common carotid arteries, one on each side of your neck. They each divide into internal and external carotid arteries. The internal carotid arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your brain. The external carotid arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Carotid artery disease diagram.Figure A shows the location of the right carotid artery in the head and neck. Figure B shows the inside of a normal carotid artery that has normal blood flow. Figure C show the inside of a carotid artery that has plaque buildup and reduced blood flow. Carotid artery disease is serious because it can cause a stroke, also called a ?brain attack.? A stroke occurs if blood flow to your brain is cut off. If blood flow is cut off for more than a few minutes, the cells in your brain start to die. This impairs the parts of the body that the brain cells control. A stroke can cause lasting brain damage; long-term disability, such as vision or speech problems or paralysis (an inability to move); or death. Overview Carotid artery disease is a major cause of stroke in the United States. Over time, plaque hardens and narrows the arteries. This may limit the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and other parts of your body. Atherosclerosis can affect any artery in the body. For example, if plaque builds up in the coronary (heart) arteries, a heart attack can occur. If plaque builds up in the carotid arteries, a stroke can occur. A stroke also can occur if blood clots form in the carotid arteries. This can happen if the plaque in an artery cracks or ruptures. Blood cell fragments called platelets (PLATE-lets) stick to the site of the injury and may clump together to form blood clots. Blood clots can partly or fully block a carotid artery. A piece of plaque or a blood clot also can break away from the wall of the carotid artery. The plaque or clot can travel through the bloodstream and get stuck in one of the brain's smaller arteries. This can block blood flow in the artery and cause a stroke. Carotid artery disease may not cause signs or symptoms until the carotid arteries are severely narrowed or blocked. For some people, a stroke is the first sign of the disease. Outlook Carotid artery disease is a major cause of stroke in the United States. Other conditions, such as certain heart problems and bleeding in the brain, also can cause strokes. Lifestyle changes, medicines, and medical procedures can help prevent or treat carotid artery disease and may reduce the risk of stroke. If you think you're having a stroke, you need urgent treatment. Call 9?1?1 right away if you have symptoms of a stroke. Do not drive yourself to the hospital. You have the best chance for full recovery if treatment to open a blocked artery is given within 4 hours of symptom onset. The sooner treatment occurs, the better your chances of recovery.


Carotid Ultrasound
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

Also known as Carotid Duplex Carotid ultrasound is a painless imaging test that uses high-frequency sound waves to create pictures of the inside of your carotid arteries. Overview This test uses an ultrasound machine, which includes a computer, a screen, and a transducer. The transducer is a handheld device that sends and receives sound waves. If combined with Doppler ultrasound, this test also can show how blood is moving through your arteries. Carotid ultrasound is done to detect plaque buildup in one or both of the carotid arteries in the neck and to see whether the buildup is narrowing your carotid arteries and blocking blood flow to the brain. Test results will help your doctor plan treatment to remove the plaque and help prevent a stroke. Carotid ultrasound usually is done in a doctor?s office or hospital. You will lie on your back on an exam table for your test. The ultrasound technician will put gel on your neck where your carotid arteries are located. The gel helps the sound waves reach your arteries. The technician will move the transducer against different areas on your neck. The transducer will detect the sound waves after they have bounced off your artery walls and blood cells. A computer will use the sound waves to create and record pictures of the inside of your carotid arteries and to show how blood is flowing in your carotid arteries. Carotid ultrasound has no risks because the test uses harmless sound waves. They are the same type of sound waves that doctors use to create and record pictures of a baby inside a pregnant woman.


Carotid Endarterectomy
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

Also known as Carotid Artery Surgery Overview This surgery is done to restore normal blood flow to the brain to prevent a stroke if you already have symptoms of reduced blood flow. Carotid endarterectomy also may be performed preventively if a diagnostic test such as carotid ultrasound shows significant blockage that is likely to trigger a stroke. Carotid endarterectomy is not a cure. Your arteries can become blocked again if your underlying condition, such as high blood cholesterol, is not controlled and causes new plaque buildup. Carotid endarterectomy is done in a hospital. You may have general anesthesia and will not be awake or feel pain during the surgery. Your surgeon instead may decide to use local anesthesia to numb only the part of your body being worked on so that he or she can check your brain?s reaction to the decreased blood flow during surgery. You also will be given medicine to relax you during the surgery. Your vital signs will be monitored during surgery. You will lie on your back on an operating table with your head turned to one side. Your surgeon will make an incision, or cut, on your neck to expose the blocked section of the carotid artery. Your surgeon will cut into the affected artery and remove the plaque through this cut. A temporary flexible tube may be inserted so blood can flow around the blocked area as the plaque is cleared. After removing the plaque from your artery, the surgeon will close the artery and neck incisions with stitches. After surgery, you will recover in the hospital for one to two days. Your neck may hurt for a few days, and you may find it hard to swallow. Your doctor may prescribe medicine to prevent clots and suggest steps to keep your carotid arteries healthy. Carotid endarterectomy is fairly safe when performed by experienced surgeons. However, serious complications such as clotting, stroke, or death may occur. Taking anticlotting medicines before and after surgery can reduce this risk. Other complications may include a reaction to anesthesia, short-term nerve injury that causes temporary numbness in your face or tongue, bleeding, infection, high blood pressure, heart attack, and seizure. The risk of complications is higher in women, older people, those with certain conditions such as chronic kidney disease or diabetes, and those with other serious medical conditions. Carotid endarterectomy is surgery that removes plaque buildup from inside a carotid artery in your neck.


Coronary Angiography
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

Coronary angiography is a procedure that uses contrast dye, usually containing iodine, and x ray pictures to detect blockages in the coronary arteries that are caused by plaque buildup. Overview Blockages prevent your heart from getting oxygen and important nutrients. This procedure is used to diagnose coronary heart disease and coronary microvascular disease after chest pain, sudden cardiac arrest, or abnormal results from tests such as an electrocardiogram (EKG) of the heart or an exercise stress test. It is important to detect blockages because over time they can cause chest pain, especially with physical activity or stress, or a heart attack. If you are having a heart attack, coronary angiography can help your doctors plan your treatment. Cardiologists, or doctors who specialize in the heart, will perform coronary angiography in a hospital or specialized laboratory. You will stay awake so you can follow your doctor?s instructions, but you will get medicine to relax you during the procedure. You will lie on your back on a movable table. Often, coronary angiography is done with a cardiac catheterization procedure. For this, your doctor will clean and numb an area on the arm, groin or upper thigh, or neck before making a small hole in a blood vessel. Your doctor will insert a catheter tube into your blood vessel. Your doctor will take x ray pictures to help place the catheter in your coronary artery. After the catheter is in place, your doctor will inject the contrast dye through the catheter to highlight blockages and will take x ray pictures of your heart. If blockages are detected, your doctor may use percutaneous coronary intervention, also known as coronary angioplasty, to improve blood flow to your heart. After coronary angiography, your doctor will remove the catheter, possibly use a closure device to close the blood vessel, and close and bandage the opening on your arm, groin, or neck. You may develop a bruise and soreness where the catheter was inserted. You will stay in the hospital for a few hours or overnight. During this time, your heart rate and blood pressure will be monitored. Your movement will be limited to prevent bleeding from the hole where the catheter was inserted. You will need a ride home after the procedure because of the medicines or anesthesia you received. Coronary angiography is a common procedure that rarely causes serious problems. Possible complications may include bleeding, allergic reactions to the contrast dye, infection, blood vessel damage, arrhythmias, blood clots that can trigger a heart attack or stroke, kidney damage, and fluid buildup around the heart. The risk of complications is higher in people who are older or who have certain conditions such as chronic kidney disease or diabetes. An imaging test called coronary computed tomography angiography, or coronary CTA, may be preferred over coronary angiography to detect blockages in the heart. Although coronary CTA still uses contrast dye, it does not require the invasive cardiac catheterization procedure that causes many of the complications of coronary angiography.


Heart Disease
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

What is Heart Disease? Coronary heart disease?often simply called heart disease?is the main form of heart disease. It is a disorder of the blood vessels of the heart that can lead to heart attack. A heart attack happens when an artery becomes blocked, preventing oxygen and nutrients from getting to the heart. Heart disease is one of several cardiovascular diseases, which are diseases of the heart and blood vessel system. Other cardiovascular diseases include stroke, high blood pressure, angina (chest pain), and rheumatic heart disease. One reason some women aren't too concerned about heart disease is that they think it can be "cured" with surgery or medication. This is a myth. Heart disease is a lifelong condition?once you get it, you'll always have it. True, procedures such as bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention can help blood and oxygen flow to the heart more easily. But the arteries remain damaged, which means you are more likely to have a heart attack. What's more, the condition of your blood vessels will steadily worsen unless you make changes in your daily habits. Many women die of complications from heart disease, or become permanently disabled. That's why it is so vital to take action to prevent and control this disease.


Heart Valve Disease
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

What Is Heart valve disease occurs if one or more of your heart valves don't work well. The heart has four valves: the tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral, and aortic valves. These valves have tissue flaps that open and close with each heartbeat. The flaps make sure blood flows in the right direction through your heart's four chambers and to the rest of your body. Healthy Heart Cross-Section Figure 1 shows the location of the heart in the body. Figure B shows a cross-section of a healthy heart and its inside structures. The blue arrow shows the direction in which oxygen-poor blood flows through the heart to the lungs. The red arrow shows the direction in which oxygen-rich blood flows from the lungs into the heart and then out to the body. Figure 1 shows the location of the heart in the body. Figure B shows a cross-section of a healthy heart and its inside structures. The blue arrow shows the direction in which oxygen-poor blood flows through the heart to the lungs. The red arrow shows the direction in which oxygen-rich blood flows from the lungs into the heart and then out to the body. Birth defects, age-related changes, infections, or other conditions can cause one or more of your heart valves to not open fully or to let blood leak back into the heart chambers. This can make your heart work harder and affect its ability to pump blood. Overview How the Heart Valves Work At the start of each heartbeat, blood returning from the body and lungs fills the atria (the heart's two upper chambers). The mitral and tricuspid valves are located at the bottom of these chambers. As the blood builds up in the atria, these valves open to allow blood to flow into the ventricles (the heart's two lower chambers). After a brief delay, as the ventricles begin to contract, the mitral and tricuspid valves shut tightly. This prevents blood from flowing back into the atria. As the ventricles contract, they pump blood through the pulmonary and aortic valves. The pulmonary valve opens to allow blood to flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery. This artery carries blood to the lungs to get oxygen. At the same time, the aortic valve opens to allow blood to flow from the left ventricle into the aorta. The aorta carries oxygen-rich blood to the body. As the ventricles relax, the pulmonary and aortic valves shut tightly. This prevents blood from flowing back into the ventricles. For more information about how the heart pumps blood and detailed animations, go to the Health Topics How the Heart Works article. Heart Valve Problems Heart valves can have three basic kinds of problems: regurgitation, stenosis, and atresia. Regurgitation, or backflow, occurs if a valve doesn't close tightly. Blood leaks back into the chambers rather than flowing forward through the heart or into an artery. In the United States, backflow most often is due to prolapse. "Prolapse" is when the flaps of the valve flop or bulge back into an upper heart chamber during a heartbeat. Prolapse mainly affects the mitral valve. Stenosis occurs if the flaps of a valve thicken, stiffen, or fuse together. This prevents the heart valve from fully opening. As a result, not enough blood flows through the valve. Some valves can have both stenosis and backflow problems. Atresia occurs if a heart valve lacks an opening for blood to pass through. Some people are born with heart valve disease, while others acquire it later in life. Heart valve disease that develops before birth is called congenital heart valve disease. Congenital heart valve disease can occur alone or with other congenital heart defects. Congenital heart valve disease often involves pulmonary or aortic valves that don't form properly. These valves may not have enough tissue flaps, they may be the wrong size or shape, or they may lack an opening through which blood can flow properly. Acquired heart valve disease usually involves aortic or mitral valves. Although the valves are normal at first, problems develop over time. Both congenital and acquired heart valve disease can cause stenosis or backflow. Outlook Many people have heart valve defects or disease but don't have symptoms. For some people, the condition mostly stays the same throughout their lives and doesn't cause any problems. For other people, heart valve disease slowly worsens until symptoms develop. If not treated, advanced heart valve disease can cause heart failure, stroke, blood clots, or death due to sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Currently, no medicines can cure heart valve disease. However, lifestyle changes and medicines can relieve many of its symptoms and complications. These treatments also can lower your risk of developing a life-threatening condition, such as stroke or SCA. Eventually, you may need to have your faulty heart valve repaired or replaced. Some types of congenital heart valve disease are so severe that the valve is repaired or replaced during infancy, childhood, or even before birth. Other types may not cause problems until middle-age or older, if at all. Other Names ?Aortic regurgitation ?Aortic stenosis ?Aortic sclerosis ?Aortic valve disease ?Bicuspid aortic valve ?Congenital heart defect ?Congenital valve disease ?Mitral regurgitation ?Mitral stenosis ?Mitral valve disease ?Mitral valve prolapse ?Pulmonic regurgitation ?Pulmonic stenosis ?Pulmonic valve disease ?Tricuspid regurgitation ?Tricuspid stenosis ?Tricuspid valve disease


High Blood Cholesterol
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

Also known as Hypercholesterolemia High blood cholesterol is a condition that causes the levels of certain bad fats, or lipids, to be too high in the blood. This condition is usually caused by lifestyle factors, such as diet, in combination with the genes that you inherit from your parents. Less commonly, it is caused by other medical conditions or some medicines. You may be diagnosed with high blood cholesterol if you consistently have high levels of bad cholesterol in your blood in a routine test called a lipid panel. To treat high blood cholesterol, your doctor may recommend heart-healthy lifestyle changes, such as heart-healthy eating, quitting smoking, or aiming for a healthy weight. Your doctor may also prescribe medicines, such as statins, to lower and control your high blood cholesterol. Untreated high blood cholesterol can lead to the buildup of plaque in the blood vessels, called atherosclerosis. Plaque buildup increases your risk for heart attack, stroke, and peripheral artery disease. Explore this Health Topic to learn more about high blood cholesterol, NHLBI?s role in research and clinical trials to improve health, and where to find more information.


Metabolic Syndrome
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

What Is Metabolic syndrome is the name for a group of risk factors that raises your risk for heart disease and other health problems, such as diabetes and stroke. The term "metabolic" refers to the biochemical processes involved in the body's normal functioning. Risk factors are traits, conditions, or habits that increase your chance of developing a disease. In this article, "heart disease" refers to coronary heart disease (CHD). CHD is a condition in which a waxy substance called plaque builds up inside the coronary (heart) arteries. Plaque hardens and narrows the arteries, reducing blood flow to your heart muscle. This can lead to chest pain, a heart attack, heart damage, or even death. Metabolic Risk Factors The five conditions described below are metabolic risk factors. You can have any one of these risk factors by itself, but they tend to occur together. You must have at least three metabolic risk factors to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. ?A large waistline. This also is called abdominal obesity or "having an apple shape." Excess fat in the stomach area is a greater risk factor for heart disease than excess fat in other parts of the body, such as on the hips. ?A high triglyceride level (or you're on medicine to treat high triglycerides). Triglycerides are a type of fat found in the blood. ?A low HDL cholesterol level (or you're on medicine to treat low HDL cholesterol). HDL sometimes is called "good" cholesterol. This is because it helps remove cholesterol from your arteries. A low HDL cholesterol level raises your risk for heart disease. ?High blood pressure (or you're on medicine to treat high blood pressure). Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart pumps blood. If this pressure rises and stays high over time, it can damage your heart and lead to plaque buildup. ?High fasting blood sugar (or you're on medicine to treat high blood sugar). Mildly high blood sugar may be an early sign of diabetes. Overview Your risk for heart disease, diabetes, and stroke increases with the number of metabolic risk factors you have. The risk of having metabolic syndrome is closely linked to overweight and obesity and a lack of physical activity. Insulin resistance also may increase your risk for metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body can?t use its insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone that helps move blood sugar into cells where it?s used for energy. Insulin resistance can lead to high blood sugar levels, and it?s closely linked to overweight and obesity. Genetics (ethnicity and family history) and older age are other factors that may play a role in causing metabolic syndrome. Outlook Metabolic syndrome is becoming more common due to a rise in obesity rates among adults. In the future, metabolic syndrome may overtake smoking as the leading risk factor for heart disease. It is possible to prevent or delay metabolic syndrome, mainly with lifestyle changes. A healthy lifestyle is a lifelong commitment. Successfully controlling metabolic syndrome requires long-term effort and teamwork with your health care providers. Other Names ?Dysmetabolic syndrome ?Hypertriglyceridemic waist ?Insulin resistance syndrome ?Obesity syndrome ?Syndrome X


Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

Also known as Coronary Angioplasty Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), also known as coronary angioplasty, is a nonsurgical procedure that improves blood flow to your heart. Overview PCI requires cardiac catheterization, which is the insertion of a catheter tube and injection of contrast dye, usually iodine-based, into your coronary arteries. Doctors use PCI to open coronary arteries that are narrowed or blocked by the buildup of atherosclerotic plaque. PCI may be used to relieve symptoms of coronary heart disease or to reduce heart damage during or after a heart attack. A cardiologist, or doctor who specializes in the heart, will perform PCI in a hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory. You will stay awake, but you will be given medicine to relax you. Before your procedure, you will receive medicines through an intravenous (IV) line in your arm to prevent blood clots. Your doctor will clean and numb an area on the wrist or groin where your doctor will make a small hole and insert the catheter into your blood vessel. Live x rays will help your doctor guide the catheter into your heart to inject special contrast dye that will highlight the blockage. To open a blocked artery, your doctor will insert another catheter over a guidewire and inflate a balloon at the tip of that catheter. Your doctor may put a small mesh tube called a stent in your artery to help keep the artery open. After PCI, your doctor will remove the catheters and close and bandage the opening on your wrist or groin. You may develop a bruise and soreness where the catheters were inserted. It also is common to have discomfort or bleeding where the catheters were inserted. You will recover in a special unit of the hospital for a few hours or overnight. You will get instructions on how much activity you can do and what medicines to take. You will need a ride home because of the medicines or anesthesia you received. Your doctor will check your progress during a follow-up visit. If a stent is implanted, you will have to take special anticlotting medicines exactly as prescribed, usually for at least three to 12 months. Serious complications from PCI don?t occur often, but they can happen. These complications may include bleeding, blood vessel damage, a treatable allergic reaction to the contrast dye, the need for emergency coronary artery bypass grafting during the procedure, arrhythmias, damaged arteries, kidney damage, heart attack, stroke, or blood clots. Sometimes chest pain can occur during PCI because the balloon briefly blocks blood supply to the heart. Restenosis, or tissue regrowth in the treated portion of the artery, may occur in the following months and cause the artery to become narrow or blocked again. The risk of complications is higher if you are older, have chronic kidney disease, are experiencing heart failure at the time of the procedure, or have extensive heart disease and multiple blockages in your coronary arteries.


Smoking and Your Heart
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

How Does Smoking Affect the Heart and Blood Vessels? Cigarette smoking causes about 1 in every 5 deaths in the United States each year. It's the main preventable cause of death and illness in the United States. Smoking harms nearly every organ in the body, including the heart, blood vessels, lungs, eyes, mouth, reproductive organs, bones, bladder, and digestive organs. This article focuses on how smoking affects the heart and blood vessels. Other Health Topics articles, such as COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), Bronchitis, and Cough, discuss how smoking affects the lungs. Overview Smoking and Your Heart and Blood Vessels The chemicals in tobacco smoke harm your blood cells. They also can damage the function of your heart and the structure and function of your blood vessels. This damage increases your risk of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a disease in which a waxy substance called plaque builds up in the arteries. Over time, plaque hardens and narrows your arteries. This limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and other parts of your body. Coronary heart disease (CHD) occurs if plaque builds up in the coronary (heart) arteries. Over time, CHD can lead to chest pain, heart attack, heart failure, arrhythmias, or even death. Smoking is a major risk factor for heart disease. When combined with other risk factors?such as unhealthy blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and overweight or obesity?smoking further raises the risk of heart disease. Smoking also is a major risk factor for peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.). P.A.D. is a condition in which plaque builds up in the arteries that carry blood to the head, organs, and limbs. People who have P.A.D. are at increased risk for heart disease, heart attack, and stroke. Smoking and Atherosclerosis The image shows how smoking can affect arteries in the heart and legs. Figure A shows the location of coronary heart disease and peripheral artery disease. Figure B shows a detailed view of a leg artery with atherosclerosis?plaque buildup that's partially blocking blood flow. Figure C shows a detailed view of a coronary (heart) artery with atherosclerosis. The image shows how smoking can affect arteries in the heart and legs. Figure A shows the location of coronary heart disease and peripheral artery disease. Figure B shows a detailed view of a leg artery with atherosclerosis?plaque buildup that&#039;s partially blocking blood flow. Figure C shows a detailed view of a coronary (heart) artery with atherosclerosis. Any amount of smoking, even light smoking or occasional smoking, damages the heart and blood vessels. For some people, such as women who use birth control pills and people who have diabetes, smoking poses an even greater risk to the heart and blood vessels. Secondhand smoke also can harm the heart and blood vessels. Secondhand smoke is the smoke that comes from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe. Secondhand smoke also refers to smoke that's breathed out by a person who is smoking. Secondhand smoke contains many of the same harmful chemicals that people inhale when they smoke. Secondhand smoke can damage the hearts and blood vessels of people who don't smoke in the same way that active smoking harms people who do smoke. Secondhand smoke greatly increases adults' risk of heart attack and death. Secondhand smoke also raises children and teens' risk of future CHD because it: ?Lowers HDL cholesterol (sometimes called "good" cholesterol) ?Raises blood pressure ?Damages heart tissues The risks of secondhand smoke are especially high for premature babies who have respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and children who have conditions such as asthma. Researchers know less about how cigar and pipe smoke affects the heart and blood vessels than they do about cigarette smoke. However, the smoke from cigars and pipes contains the same harmful chemicals as the smoke from cigarettes. Also, studies have shown that people who smoke cigars are at increased risk for heart disease. Benefits of Quitting Smoking and Avoiding Secondhand Smoke One of the best ways to reduce your risk of heart disease is to avoid tobacco smoke. Don't ever start smoking. If you already smoke, quit. No matter how much or how long you've smoked, quitting will benefit you. Also, try to avoid secondhand smoke. Don't go to places where smoking is allowed. Ask friends and family members who smoke not to do it in the house and car. Quitting smoking will reduce your risk of developing and dying from heart disease. Over time, quitting also will lower your risk of atherosclerosis and blood clots. If you smoke and already have heart disease, quitting smoking will reduce your risk of sudden cardiac death, a second heart attack, and death from other chronic diseases. Researchers have studied communities that have banned smoking at worksites and in public places. The number of heart attacks in these communities dropped quite a bit. Researchers think these results are due to a decrease in active smoking and reduced exposure to secondhand smoke. Outlook Smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke damages the heart and blood vessels in many ways. Smoking also is a major risk factor for developing heart disease or dying from it. Quitting smoking and avoiding secondhand smoke can help reverse heart and blood vessel damage and reduce heart disease risk. Quitting smoking is possible, but it can be hard. Millions of people have quit smoking successfully and remained nonsmokers. A variety of strategies, programs, and medicines are available to help you quit smoking. Not smoking is an important part of a heart-healthy lifestyle. A heart-healthy lifestyle also includes heart-healthy eating, aiming for a healthy weight, managing stress, and physical activity.


Stroke
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

Also known as Cerebrovascular accident What Is A stroke occurs if the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a portion of the brain is blocked. Without oxygen, brain cells start to die after a few minutes. Sudden bleeding in the brain also can cause a stroke if it damages brain cells. If brain cells die or are damaged because of a stroke, symptoms occur in the parts of the body that these brain cells control. Examples of stroke symptoms include sudden weakness; paralysis or numbness of the face, arms, or legs (paralysis is an inability to move); trouble speaking or understanding speech; and trouble seeing. A stroke is a serious medical condition that requires emergency care. A stroke can cause lasting brain damage, long-term disability, or even death. If you think you or someone else is having a stroke, call 9?1?1 right away. Do not drive to the hospital or let someone else drive you. Call an ambulance so that medical personnel can begin life-saving treatment on the way to the emergency room. During a stroke, every minute counts. Overview The two main types of stroke are ischemic (is-KE-mik) and hemorrhagic (hem-ah-RAJ-ik). Ischemic is the more common type of stroke. An ischemic stroke occurs if an artery that supplies oxygen-rich blood to the brain becomes blocked. Blood clots often cause the blockages that lead to ischemic strokes. A hemorrhagic stroke occurs if an artery in the brain leaks blood or ruptures (breaks open). The pressure from the leaked blood damages brain cells. High blood pressure and aneurysms (AN-u-risms) are examples of conditions that can cause hemorrhagic strokes. (Aneurysms are balloon-like bulges in an artery that can stretch and burst.) Another condition that?s similar to a stroke is a transient ischemic attack, also called a TIA or ?mini-stroke.? A TIA occurs if blood flow to a portion of the brain is blocked only for a short time. Thus, damage to the brain cells isn?t permanent (lasting). Like ischemic strokes, TIAs often are caused by blood clots. Although TIAs are not full-blown strokes, they greatly increase the risk of having a stroke. If you have a TIA, it?s important for your doctor to find the cause so you can take steps to prevent a stroke. Both strokes and TIAs require emergency care. Outlook Stroke is a leading cause of death in the United States. Many factors can raise your risk of having a stroke. Talk with your doctor about how you can control these risk factors and help prevent a stroke. If you have a stroke, prompt treatment can reduce damage to your brain and help you avoid lasting disabilities. Prompt treatment also may help prevent another stroke. Researchers continue to study the causes and risk factors for stroke. They?re also finding new and better treatments and new ways to help the brain repair itself after a stroke. Other Names ?Brain attack ?Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) ?Hemorrhagic stroke (includes intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage) ?Ischemic stroke (includes thrombotic stroke and embolic stroke) A transient ischemic attack sometimes is called a TIA or mini-stroke. A TIA has the same symptoms as a stroke, and it increases your risk of having a stroke.


Vascular dementia
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

Also known as Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Vascular dementia, the second most common form of dementia, is caused by conditions that damage the blood vessels in the brain or interfere with proper blood flow and oxygen delivery to the brain. Overview Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia, after Alzheimer?s disease, affecting almost a third of people over age 70. Dementia causes a decline in brain function, or cognitive abilities, beyond what is expected from the normal aging process. Dementia causes problems with memory, thinking, behavior, language skills, and decision making. Vascular dementia is caused by conditions that damage the blood vessels in the brain, depriving the brain of oxygen. This oxygen shortage inhibits the brain?s ability to work as well as it should. For example, stroke blocks blood flow to the brain, decreasing oxygen. However, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking also increase the risk of vascular dementia. Vascular dementia in patients can occur alone or with Alzheimer?s disease. To diagnose cognitive impairment and dementia, your doctor will ask about problems you may have carrying out daily activities. Your doctor will give you brief memory or thinking tests and may ask to speak with a relative or friend who knows you well. To determine whether vascular dementia is the cause of any cognitive impairment or dementia that you may have, your doctor will consider your medical history and your lifestyle (such as your eating patterns, physical activity level, sleep health, and whether you are or have been a smoker), and order imaging tests. Diagnosis can take time. This is because it is often difficult to tell whether symptoms are a result of problems with the blood vessels, as is the case with vascular dementia, or whether they are from Alzheimer?s disease. If your doctor diagnoses you with vascular dementia, your treatment plan may include taking medicine or using medical devices to manage other conditions, such as high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, or sleep apnea, that may cause your vascular dementia to worsen. Your doctor may also recommend that you adopt heart-healthy lifestyle changes, such as heart-healthy eating, which includes limiting alcohol, getting regular physical activity, aiming for a healthy weight; quitting smoking; and managing stress.


CPAP
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

Also known as Continuous Positive Airway Pressure CPAP is a treatment that uses mild air pressure to keep your breathing airways open. Overview It involves using a CPAP machine that includes a mask or other device that fits over your nose or your nose and mouth, straps to position the mask, a tube that connects the mask to the machine?s motor, and a motor that blows air into the tube. CPAP is used to treat sleep-related breathing disorders including sleep apnea. It also may be used to treat preterm infants who have underdeveloped lungs. If your doctor prescribes CPAP over other treatment options for your sleep apnea, your insurance will work with a medical device company to provide you with a CPAP machine and the disposable mask and tube. Your doctor will set up your machine with certain pressure settings. After using your machine for a while, your doctor and possibly your insurance company will want to check the data card from your machine to confirm that you are using your CPAP device and to see if the machine and its pressure settings are working to reduce or eliminate apnea events while you sleep. For the treatment to work, you should use your CPAP machine every time you sleep at home, while traveling, and during naps. Getting used to using your CPAP machine can take time and requires patience. Your doctor may need to adjust your pressure settings for you. You may have to work with your sleep doctor to find the most comfortable mask that works best for you, to try the humidifier chamber in your machine, or to use a different CPAP machine that allows multiple or auto-adjusting pressure settings. Some patients notice immediate improvements after starting CPAP treatment, such as better sleep quality, reduction or elimination of snoring, and less daytime sleepiness. Equally important are the long-term benefits that you cannot notice, such as helping to prevent or control high blood pressure, lowering your risk for stroke, and improving memory and other cognitive function. Side effects of CPAP treatment may include congestion, runny nose, dry mouth, or nosebleeds. If you experience stomach discomfort or bloating, you should stop using your CPAP machine and contact your doctor immediately. Some masks can cause irritation. Your doctor can help you find ways to relieve these symptoms and adjust to using your CPAP machine. It is important that you clean your mask and tube every day and refill your medical device prescription at the right time to replace the mask and tube to ensure the treatment continues to work.


Cystic Fibrosis
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

What Is Cystic fibrosis (SIS-tik fi-BRO-sis), or CF, is an inherited disease of the secretory (see-KREH-tor-ee) glands. Secretory glands include glands that make mucus and sweat. "Inherited" means the disease is passed from parents to children through genes. People who have CF inherit two faulty genes for the disease?one from each parent. The parents likely don't have the disease themselves. CF mainly affects the lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, sinuses, and sex organs. Overview Mucus is a substance made by tissues that line some organs and body cavities, such as the lungs and nose. Normally, mucus is a slippery, watery substance. It keeps the linings of certain organs moist and prevents them from drying out or getting infected. If you have CF, your mucus becomes thick and sticky. It builds up in your lungs and blocks your airways. (Airways are tubes that carry air in and out of your lungs.) The buildup of mucus makes it easy for bacteria to grow. This leads to repeated, serious lung infections. Over time, these infections can severely damage your lungs. The thick, sticky mucus also can block tubes, or ducts, in your pancreas (an organ in your abdomen). As a result, the digestive enzymes that your pancreas makes can't reach your small intestine. These enzymes help break down food. Without them, your intestines can't fully absorb fats and proteins. This can cause vitamin deficiency and malnutrition because nutrients pass through your body without being used. You also may have bulky stools, intestinal gas, a swollen belly from severe constipation, and pain or discomfort. CF also causes your sweat to become very salty. Thus, when you sweat, you lose large amounts of salt. This can upset the balance of minerals in your blood and cause many health problems. Examples of these problems include dehydration (a lack of fluid in your body), increased heart rate, fatigue (tiredness), weakness, decreased blood pressure, heat stroke, and, rarely, death. If you or your child has CF, you're also at higher risk for diabetes or two bone-thinning conditions called osteoporosis (OS-te-o-po-RO-sis) and osteopenia (OS-te-o-PEE-nee-uh). CF also causes infertility in men, and the disease can make it harder for women to get pregnant. (The term "infertility" refers to the inability to have children.) Outlook The symptoms and severity of CF vary. If you or your child has the disease, you may have serious lung and digestive problems. If the disease is mild, symptoms may not show up until the teen or adult years. The symptoms and severity of CF also vary over time. Sometimes you'll have few symptoms. Other times, your symptoms may become more severe. As the disease gets worse, you'll have more severe symptoms more often. Lung function often starts to decline in early childhood in people who have CF. Over time, damage to the lungs can cause severe breathing problems. Respiratory failure is the most common cause of death in people who have CF. As treatments for CF continue to improve, so does life expectancy for those who have the disease. Today, some people who have CF are living into their forties or fifties, or longer. Early treatment for CF can improve your quality of life and increase your lifespan. Treatments may include nutritional and respiratory therapies, medicines, exercise, and other treatments. Your doctor also may recommend pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). PR is a broad program that helps improve the well-being of people who have chronic (ongoing) breathing problems. Other Names ?Cystic fibrosis of the pancreas ?Fibrocystic disease of the pancreas ?Mucoviscidosis (MU-ko-vis-ih-DO-sis) ?Mucoviscidosis of the pancreas ?Pancreas fibrocystic disease ?Pancreatic cystic fibrosis


Sleep Studies
From NHLBI health topic site Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2014 0AM)

Also known as Polysomnography Sleep studies are painless, noninvasive tests that measure how well you sleep and how your body responds to sleep problems. Overview The more common sleep studies monitor and record data about your body during a full night of sleep. Other types of sleep studies include multiple sleep latency and daytime maintenance of wakefulness tests. Multiple sleep latency tests measure how quickly you fall asleep during a series of daytime naps and use sensors to record your brain activity and eye movements. A daytime maintenance of wakefulness test measures your ability to stay awake and alert. Sleep studies can help your doctor diagnose sleep-related breathing disorders such as sleep apnea, sleep-related seizure disorders, sleep-related movement disorders, and sleep disorders that cause extreme daytime tiredness such as narcolepsy. Doctors also may use sleep studies to help diagnose or rule out restless legs syndrome. Your doctor will determine whether you must have your sleep study at a sleep center or if you can do it at home with a portable diagnostic device. If your sleep study will be done at a sleep center, you will sleep in a bed at the sleep center for the duration of the study. Removable sensors will be placed on your scalp, face, eyelids, chest, limbs, and a finger. These sensors record your brain waves, heart rate, breathing effort and rate, oxygen levels, and muscle movements before, during, and after sleep. There is a small risk of irritation from the sensors, but this will go away after they are removed. Your doctor will review your sleep study test results and develop a treatment plan for any diagnosed sleep disorder. Untreated sleep disorders can raise your risk for heart failure, high blood pressure, stroke, diabetes, and depression. Sleep disorders also have been linked to an increased risk for injury and car accidents.


Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes
From NCATS Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2011 0AM)


Anterior spinal artery stroke
From NCATS Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2011 0AM)


Neonatal stroke
From NCATS Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2011 0AM)


Hereditary endotheliopathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, and stroke
From NCATS Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2011 0AM)


Bow hunter's stroke
From NCATS Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Brand (Posted: Jan-01-2011 0AM)



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