Do polygenic risk scores add to clinical data in predicting pancreatic cancer? a scoping review.
Louise Wang et al. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2023 8
From the abstract: "21 studies examined associations between a PC-specific PRS and PC. Seven studies evaluated risk factors beyond age and sex. Three studies evaluated the change in discrimination associated with the addition of PRS to routine risk factors and reported improvements [(AUCs: 0.715 to 0.745; AUC 0.791 to 0.830; AUC from 0.694 to 0.711]. Limitations to clinical applicability included using source populations younger/healthier than those at risk for PC (n=10), exclusively of European ancestry (n=13), or controls without relevant exposures (n=1). While most studies of PC-specific PRS did not evaluate the independent discrimination of PRS for PC beyond routine risk factors, three that did showed improvements in discrimination. "
Precision medicine meets cancer vaccines.
et al. Nat Med 2023 6
Vaccines for treating cancer have been in development for decades, but their clinical efficacy has been elusive. Thus far, only one therapeutic vaccine against cancer has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of prostate cancer, extending patient survival by only 4 months. Now, two independent efforts using mRNA vaccines tailor-made to target each patient’s tumor have reported initial success in melanoma and pancreatic cancer and are energizing the field of anti-cancer vaccines.
A deep learning algorithm to predict risk of pancreatic cancer from disease trajectories.
Davide Placido et al. Nat Med 2023 5
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive disease that typically presents late with poor outcomes, indicating a pronounced need for early detection. In this study, we applied artificial intelligence methods to clinical data from 6 million patients (24,000 pancreatic cancer cases) in Denmark (Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR)) and from 3 million patients (3,900 cases) in the United States (US Veterans Affairs (US-VA)). We trained machine learning models on the sequence of disease codes in clinical histories and tested prediction of cancer occurrence within incremental time windows (CancerRiskNet).
A Double Whammy on Gastric Cancer Risk.
Anne Müller et al. The New England journal of medicine 2023 3 (13) 1225-1229
Germline mutations in genes encoding homologous-recombination proteins are associated with cancer predisposition, developmental disorders, and premature aging. Specifically, germline pathogenic variants in ATM, BRCA2, BRCA1, and PALB2 are known to cause a predisposition to breast, ovarian, prostate, and pancreatic cancer. Gastric cancer, at least in the context of H. pylori infection, has now been added to this list.