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Last Posted: Mar 09, 2023
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Know Your Risk for High Cholesterol
CDC Information, February 2023 Brand

Some people have an inherited genetic condition called FH. This condition causes very high low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or “bad”) cholesterol levels beginning at a young age that, left untreated, continue to worsen with age. An estimated 1 million U.S. adults have confirmed or probable FH.1 Worldwide, about 1 in 313 people are estimated to have FH. If someone in your family has a heart attack early in life, talk with your health care team about your own and your other family members’ risk for FH and whether your family should get tested. Your health care team may talk with you about lifestyle changes you can make to help lower or manage your cholesterol levels. Often, though, FH can’t be treated with lifestyle changes alone. You may need medicine, such as statin therapy or other medicine, to manage your cholesterol levels.

Association of Rare Protein-Truncating DNA Variants in APOB or PCSK9 With Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease.
Jacqueline S Dron et al. JAMA cardiology 2023 2

What is the prevalence of protein-truncating variants (PTVs) in the apolipoprotein B (APOB) or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) genes and their association with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and coronary heart disease (CHD)? In this genetic association study including 19?073 US participants and 190?464 UK participants, a PTV was identified in 0.4% of individuals. Estimated untreated LDL cholesterol concentrations were 32% to 37% lower in PTV carriers vs noncarriers, and PTVs were associated with a 49% reduction in CHD risk.

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction in Young Adults—The Next Frontier
SS Khan et al, JAMA Cardiology, December 28, 2022

A recent study highlights the need to focus on risk prediction in younger adults. This warrants a life course perspective that incorporates both lifetime risk and expected treatment benefit. Before considering the addition of PRS in the subset of individuals aged 40 to 49 years with borderline to intermediate risk, strategies for risk estimation should rigorously evaluate clinical utility of 30-year risk assessment based on traditional risk factors, dynamic changes in risk factor levels, and causal factors (apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein[a]).

Small Interfering RNA to Reduce Lipoprotein(a) in Cardiovascular Disease.
O'Donoghue Michelle L et al. The New England journal of medicine 2022 11

Lipoprotein(a) is a presumed risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Olpasiran is a small interfering RNA that reduces lipoprotein(a) synthesis in the liver. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding trial involving patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and a lipoprotein(a) concentration of more than 150 nmol per liter. Olpasiran therapy significantly reduced lipoprotein(a) concentrations in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Longer and larger trials will be necessary to determine the effect of olpasiran therapy on cardiovascular disease.

Disclaimer: Articles listed in the Public Health Genomics and Precision Health Knowledge Base are selected by the CDC Office of Public Health Genomics to provide current awareness of the literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the update, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.