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Hot Topics of the Day are picked by experts to capture the latest information and publications on public health genomics and precision health for various diseases and health topics. Sources include published scientific literature, reviews, blogs and popular press articles.

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3010 hot topic(s) found with the query "Cancer"

Colorectal cancer-associated microbiota contributes to oncogenic epigenetic signatures
I Sobhani, et al, PNAS, November 11, 2019 (Posted: Nov-12-2019 8AM)

This study advances our appreciation and understanding of the role of colon dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. In a human pilot study of 266 individuals, greater epigenomic (methylation) DNA alterations correlated with CRC and microbiota composition.


Guidelines for the management of hereditary colorectal cancer from the BSG /ACPGBI/UKCGG
British Society Gastroenterology, October 2019 (Posted: Nov-10-2019 8AM)

Guidelines for the management of hereditary colorectal cancer from the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG)/ Association of Coloproctologists of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI)/ United Kingdom Cancer Genetics Group (UKCGG).


Factors associated with oncologist discussions of the costs of genomic testing and related treatments.
Yabroff K Robin et al. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2019 Nov (Posted: Nov-10-2019 8AM)

Among oncologists who discussed genomic testing with patients, 50.0% reported often discussing the likely costs of testing and related treatments; 26.3% reported sometimes discussing costs; and 23.7% reported never or rarely discussing costs. Interventions can target oncologist and practice factors, such as training in genomic testing and use of EMR alerts.


UVM Health Network to offer DNA testing as part of primary care
K Jickling, Support VTDigger, November 7,y 2019 (Posted: Nov-09-2019 8AM)

The tests are part of a pilot project that will allow primary care doctors and geneticists to identify and treat preventable diseases earlier. Using blood drawn as part of the appointment, the tests will analyze 147 genes for mutations that are linked to certain diseases, such as cancer or heart disease.


Evolutionary divergence of HLA class I genotype impacts efficacy of cancer immunotherapy
D Chowell et al, Nature Medicine, November 7, 2019 (Posted: Nov-08-2019 9AM)


Doctors try CRISPR gene editing for cancer, a 1st in the US
M Marchione, Washington Post, November 6, 2019 (Posted: Nov-07-2019 8AM)


CRISPR Approach To Fighting Cancer Called 'Promising' In 1st Safety Test
R Stein, NPR, November 6, 2019 (Posted: Nov-07-2019 7AM)


Crispr Takes Its First Steps in Editing Genes to Fight Cancer
D Grady, NY Times, November 6, 2019 (Posted: Nov-07-2019 7AM)

Doctors have for the first time in the United States tested a powerful gene-editing technique in people with cancer. The test, meant to assess only safety, was a step toward the ultimate goal of editing genes to help a patient’s own immune system to attack cancer. The editing was done by the DNA-snipping tool Crispr.


The ethical, legal and social implications of using artificial intelligence systems in breast cancer care.
Carter Stacy M et al. Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 2019 Oct 4925-32 (Posted: Nov-06-2019 8AM)


Prospective Evaluation of a Breast Cancer Risk Model Integrating Classical Risk Factors and Polygenic Risk in 15 Cohorts from Six Countries
AN Wilcox et al., MedXRIV, November 5, 2019 (Posted: Nov-06-2019 8AM)

Evaluation across multiple prospective cohorts demonstrates that integrating a 313-SNP PRS into a risk model substantially improves its ability to stratify women of European ancestry for applying current breast cancer prevention guidelines.


CMS Aims to Broaden Coverage for NGS Testing in Breast, Ovarian Cancer -Expansion would include patients with risk factors for inherited susceptibility mutations
I Ingram, MedPage Today, October 31, 2019 (Posted: Nov-05-2019 9AM)

In a proposed decision memo on Tuesday, the agency stated that sufficient evidence exists to support testing when treating physicians determine that patients with breast and ovarian cancer have clinical indications for germline testing, risk factors for an inherited cancer, and have yet to receive such testing.


Year in Review: Ovarian Cancer: PARP inhibitors, genetic testing, and novel combinations
I Ingram, Medpage Today, November 1, 2019 (Posted: Nov-03-2019 7AM)

Two themes dominated the ovarian cancer headlines in 2019 -- moving PARP inhibitors into earlier lines of therapy for advanced-stage disease and genetic testing. Over the summer, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) broadened its criteria for BRCA cancer susceptibility gene testing in women.


The BRCA gene is about so much more than breast cancer risk
A Goldman, Well and Good, October 27, 2019 (Posted: Nov-01-2019 10AM)

BRCA literally stands for “BReast CAncer gene,” so it makes sense that we think of a person’s breast cancer risk when we talk about BRCA gene mutations. The thing is, though, that harmful BRCA mutations can impact a person’s risk of developing several other cancers—including pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer—and they’re just less talked about.


PARP Inhibitors Show Promise as Initial Treatment for Ovarian Cancer
NCI, October 29, 2019 Brand (Posted: Oct-31-2019 0PM)

Drugs known as PARP inhibitors are used to treat some women with advanced ovarian cancer that has returned after earlier treatment. Now, results from three new clinical trials show that the drugs might also benefit women who are newly diagnosed with advanced ovarian cancer.


Cancer researchers embrace AI to accelerate development of precision medicine
J Roach, the AI Blog, October 27, 2019 (Posted: Oct-29-2019 9AM)

Biomedical researchers are embracing artificial intelligence to accelerate the implementation of cancer treatments that target patients’ specific genomic profiles. To harness this potential, researchers developed the Clinical Knowledgebase, or CKB, is a searchable database where subject matter experts store, sort and interpret complex genomic data.


25 Years of BRCA: How a Cancer Milestone Has Changed the Field
J Infanti, Penn Medicine Blog, October 2019 (Posted: Oct-29-2019 9AM)

It’s been 25 years since the BRCA1 gene was first cloned — a discovery that accelerated cancer research and opened a new path for exploration in cancer prevention and treatment. The tremendous amount of research and innovation over the past 25 years has led us to a better understanding of the steps we can take to detect cancers early or prevent them altogether.


Testing for Honesty
L Schlager, Cure, October 2019 (Posted: Oct-28-2019 2PM)

There is a flood of information about genetic tests for cancer risk being offered in the media and even at senior centers, churches and community fairs. If these promotions have caught your attention, consider some key facts before you pursue genetic testing.


Comparative Tumor RNA Sequencing Analysis for Difficult-to-Treat Pediatric and Young Adult Patients With Cancer
OM Vaske et al, JAMA Network Open, October 25, 2019 (Posted: Oct-27-2019 11AM)

This study suggests that tumor RNA-Seq comparisons may be feasible and highlight the potential clinical utility of incorporating such comparisons into clinical genomic interpretation for difficult-to-treat pediatric and young adult patients with cancer.


Vision of the Future of Medical Science
Francis Collins, Time, October 25, 2019 (Posted: Oct-27-2019 11AM)

Among the many efforts now poised to change the future of health are those to harness the power of gene editing, expand the reach of cancer immunotherapy, map the human brain and build a solid foundation for a more individualized approach to health care, often called precision medicine.


Harnessing the Power of Microbes to Fight Cancer
JP Zegerac, Medscape, October 25, 2019 (Posted: Oct-27-2019 11AM)

A study in patients with melanoma indicate that users of probiotics have one-third the odds of responding to immunotherapy treatment with anti-programmed cell death-1 checkpoint inhibitors compared with patients not taking probiotics. The study found that patients on probiotics have decreased diversity of the microbiome.", a key measure of overall gut health.


Analysis Shows Women with High Breast Cancer Recurrence Scores Benefit from Chemo
NCI, October 25, 2019 Brand (Posted: Oct-26-2019 10AM)

For women with the most common type of early-stage breast cancer and high scores on the Oncotype DX test, receiving chemotherapy with hormone therapy after surgery can lead to excellent long-term outcomes. That’s the conclusion of a new data analysis from the NCI-funded TAILORx clinical trial.


Machine Learning Approaches to Predict 6-Month Mortality Among Patients With Cancer
RB Parikh et al, JAMA Network Open, October 25, 2019 (Posted: Oct-26-2019 10AM)

Can machine learning algorithms identify oncology patients at risk of short-term mortality to inform timely conversations between patients and physicians regrading serious illness? This cohort study of 26?525 patients seen in oncology practices within a large academic health system investigates


Improving Molecular Oncology by Making Results Available to Patients
JR Oxnard et al, JAMA Oncology, October 24, 2019 (Posted: Oct-25-2019 1PM)

Are delivering on the promise of molecular oncology? Too small a proportion of appropriate patients are receiving standard-of-care biomarker evaluation.1 Furthermore, real-world evidence now reveals that even when testing is performed, the results are not appropriately informing therapy selection


Angelina Jolie: Medical Advances in Women's Health Are Important. But They're Only Part of the Picture
A Jolie, Time, October 24, 2019 (Posted: Oct-25-2019 1PM)

I lost my grandmother and my mother to breast cancer. I remember once holding my mother’s hand, as she was receiving chemotherapy, when she started to turn purple and I had to race to get the nurse. Now there are new ways to identify which chemotherapy medication is best for each patient, resulting in fewer of the horrible side effects


Pan-cancer whole-genome analyses of metastatic solid tumours
P Priestley et al, Nature, October 23, 219 (Posted: Oct-24-2019 8AM)


Huge whole-genome study of human metastatic cancers
JF Wise et al, Nature, October 23, 2019 (Posted: Oct-24-2019 8AM)

A better understanding of the genetic changes that enable cancers to spread is crucial. A comprehensive study of whole-genome sequences from metastatic cancer will help researchers to achieve this goal.


Ethnic disparities among men with prostate cancer undergoing germline testing.
Kwon Daniel Hyuck-Min et al. Urologic oncology 2019 Oct (Posted: Oct-23-2019 9AM)

We retrospectively examined germline genetic and clinical data of men reporting a diagnosis of prostate cancer referred to Color Genomics by a healthcare provider for testing of 30 genes associated with hereditary cancer risk. Variants were classified as pathogenic (P), likely pathogenic (LP), variant of uncertain significance (VUS), likely benign, or benign.


Survival by colon cancer stage and screening interval in Lynch syndrome: a prospective Lynch syndrome database report
MD Valentin et al, Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice, October 2019 (Posted: Oct-23-2019 8AM)


Mapping genetic interactions in cancer: a road to rational combination therapies
B Tutuncioglu et al, Genome Medicine, October 22, 2019 (Posted: Oct-23-2019 8AM)

Here, we summarize recent advances in mapping genetic interactions using targeted, genome-wide, and high-throughput genetic screens, and we discuss the therapeutic insights obtained through such screens. We further focus on factors that should be considered in order to develop a robust analysis pipeline.


Choosing wisely: Selecting PARP inhibitor combinations to promote anti-tumor immune responses beyond BRCA mutations.
Veneris Jennifer Taylor et al. Gynecologic oncology 2019 Oct (Posted: Oct-23-2019 8AM)

PARP inhibitors have transformed the management of advanced high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Despite the overwhelming success of PARP inhibition, particularly in BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer, several limitations and unanswered questions remain. The population appropriate to target with PARP inhibitors in patients without BRCA mutations is controversial.


Enhancing Observational Data Collection to Inform Precision Cancer Research and Care
DCCPS, NCI, October 2019 Brand (Posted: Oct-22-2019 11AM)

DCCPS supports research in surveillance, epidemiology, health care delivery, behavioral science, and cancer survivorship. It is a source of expertise and evidence on issues such as the quality of cancer care, the economic burden of cancer, geographic information systems, statistical methods, communication, behavioral research and health care delivery.


The Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool
NCI, 2019 Brand (Posted: Oct-21-2019 10AM)

The Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool was designed for doctors and other health care providers to use with their patients. The tool estimates the risk of colorectal cancer over the next 5 years and the lifetime risk for men and women who are: Between the ages of 45 and 85. This tool takes about 5 minutes to complete.


Blending Insights from Implementation Science and the Social Sciences to Mitigate Inequities in Screening for Hereditary Cancer Syndromes
L Senier et al, MDPI, JPM, October 2019 (Posted: Oct-20-2019 11AM)

Genomic screening to identify people at high risk for hereditary conditions has potential to improve population health. If not equitably accessible, genomic screening will exacerbate health inequities or give rise to new ones. We propose a conceptual framework that merges insights from implementation science and sociological research on health inequities


What Beyonce’s Dad And Angelina Jolie Have In Common
E Matloff, Forbes, October 18, 2019 (Posted: Oct-19-2019 7AM)

Beyonce’s father, Matthew Knowles, recently went public with the announcement that he has breast cancer and carries a mutation in a gene called BRCA2. He joins Angelina Jolie as a celebrity who has shared his private medical and genetic history in order to raise awareness and potentially help millions of patients and health care providers.


Cost-effectiveness of risk-stratified colorectal cancer screening based on polygenic risk – current status and future potential
SK Naber et al, JNCI SPectrum, October 17, 2019 (Posted: Oct-18-2019 8AM)

This cost-effectiveness analysis shows that currently, colorectal cancer screening based on polygenic risk is unlikely to be cost effective compared to uniform screening. This is expected to change with a?>?0.05 increase in AUC value, a?>?30% reduction in polygenic testing costs, or a?>?5% increase in adherence with screening.


DNA Tests For Psychiatric Drugs Are Controversial But Some Insurers Are Covering Them
G Dangor, NPR, October 17, 2019 (Posted: Oct-18-2019 8AM)

Debates over efficacy: As the field of genetic testing to help diagnose and treat disease grows, medicine has embraced certain tests, such as that for the BRCA gene linked to breast cancer. But many researchers say there is not enough evidence tying genetic variants to better outcomes for most psychiatric medications.


Circulating Tumor DNA Analyses as Markers of Recurrence Risk and Benefit of Adjuvant Therapy for Stage III Colon Cancer
J Tie et al, JAMA Oncology, October 17, 2019 (Posted: Oct-18-2019 8AM)

Postsurgical and post chemotherapy circulating tumor DNA analyses may identify patients at high risk of recurrence despite completing standard adjuvant treatment, presenting a unique opportunity to explore additional therapeutic approaches.


Artificial intelligence aims to improve cancer screenings in Kenya
N Westman, Nature Medicine, October 16, 2019 (Posted: Oct-17-2019 9AM)


Beyoncé’s Dad Has a Mutation More African-Americans Should Be Tested For An inherited gene that can be discovered early caused Matthew Knowles’s breast cancer.
E Stallings, NY Times, October 16, 2019 (Posted: Oct-17-2019 8AM)

Researchers at the Moffitt Cancer Center in Florida found that among young breast cancer patients who met the national guidelines for receiving genetic counseling, only 37 percent of black women had discussed it with a provider compared to 86 percent of white women. Just 36 percent of black women received testing for BRCA compared to 65 percent of white women.


The predicted impact and cost-effectiveness of systematic testing of people with incident colorectal cancer for Lynch syndrome.
Kang Yoon-Jung et al. The Medical journal of Australia 2019 Oct (Posted: Oct-16-2019 9AM)


Precision medicine in pancreatic cancer: treating every patient as an exception.
Herbst Brian et al. The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology 2019 Oct (10) 805-810 (Posted: Oct-16-2019 6AM)

Patients with pancreatic cancer have not benefited from recent improvements in overall survival brought about by precision medicine in other malignancies. This failure is not due to a dearth of precision-medicine research in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the main type of pancreatic cancer.


Pancreatic Cancer: Patient Page
JAMA, October 2019 (Posted: Oct-13-2019 1PM)

Conditions that increase risk of pancreatic cancer include smoking, chronic pancreatitis, obesity, long-standing diabetes, a strong family history of pancreatic cancer, and diets high in red and processed meats.


New Precision Medicine Treatment Could Benefit Many Men with Treatment-Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer
by Andrea K. Miyahira, Prostate Cancer Foundation, October 1, 2019 (Posted: Oct-11-2019 8AM)

A new study reported positive results from a Phase 3 clinical trial testing the PARP-inhibitor olaparib (Lynparza) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who have alterations in certain DNA damage repair (DDR) genes; a result which will likely lead to a new FDA-approval. Roughly 20-30% of mCRPC patients harbor these DDR gene mutations in their tumors and thus may benefit from PARP-inhibition.


BRCA testing in unaffected young women in the United States, 2006-2017.
Guo Fangjian et al. Cancer 2019 Sep (Posted: Oct-09-2019 8AM)

Over the past decade, there was increased use of BRCA testing for cancer prevention. Additional efforts are needed to maximize the early detection of women with BRCA pathogenic variants so that these cancers may be prevented.


General “Take Action” Infographic
CDC Cancer, 2019 Brand (Posted: Oct-08-2019 8AM)

Lower your risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Asking relatives about their cancer histories can be hard. Follow these tips: Share that you have learned that cancers can run in families. Explain that you are creating a record of your family’s history of cancer. •Encourage family members to respond in a way that is most comfortable to them.


Easing the Burden of Children and Families Dealing with Cancer
JE Bloyd, CDC Cancer Blog, October 2019 Brand (Posted: Oct-08-2019 8AM)


Genome-wide germline correlates of the epigenetic landscape of prostate cancer
KE Houlahan et al, Nature Medicine, October 7, 2019 (Posted: Oct-08-2019 8AM)

The study quantified the influence of germline polymorphisms on the somatic epigenome of 589 localized prostate tumors. Predisposition risk loci influence a tumor’s epigenome, uncovering a mechanism for cancer susceptibility. We identified and validated 1,178 loci associated with altered methylation in tumoral but not nonmalignant tissue.


A machine learning based delta-radiomics process for early prediction of treatment response of pancreatic cancer
H Nasief et al, NPJ Precision Oncology, October 4, 2019 (Posted: Oct-06-2019 2PM)

Changes of radiomic features over time in longitudinal images, delta radiomics, can potentially be used as a biomarker to predict treatment response. This study aims to develop a delta-radiomic process based on machine learning by (1) acquiring and registering longitudinal images, (2) segmenting regions of interest, (3) and extracting radiomic features.


Doctors Limit What to Tell Patients About Their DNA Test. Should They?
M Evans et al, Wall Street Journal. October 4, 2019 (Posted: Oct-06-2019 2PM)

The Mayo Clinic is scanning 20,000 genes for thousands of patients to study genes’ role in disease. It will hand over results for just 59. Mayo will look for certain disease-causing gene variants for heart disease or breast cancer, and offer results to patients who have them. But it doesn’t look at variants for early-onset Alzheimer’s or Lou Gehrig’s disease.


Broad Application of Multigene Panel Testing for Breast Cancer Susceptibility—Pandora’s Box Is Opening Wider
JAMA Oncology, October 2019 (Posted: Oct-06-2019 2PM)

Most genetic risk assessment is now conducted through multigene panel testing (MGPT), and the more genes that are tested, the more pathogenic variants (and variants of uncertain significance [VUS]) that are found.


A Patient’s Guide to Endometrial Cancer-This cancer is on the rise. But early detection saves lives.
MO Shroeder, US News, October 4, 2019 (Posted: Oct-05-2019 9AM)

Risk factors for this cancer include: obesity, diabetes, having close relatives like a parent or sibling who have endometrial cancer or colorectal cancer, and a genetic condition called Lynch syndrome. Having Lynch syndrome greatly increases a woman’s risk of developing endometrial cancer, and other cancers like colon and ovarian cancer


Implementation Science Centers in Cancer Control (ISC3)
NCI, October 2019 Brand (Posted: Oct-05-2019 8AM)

The Implementation Science Centers in Cancer Control (ISC3) Program supports the rapid development, testing, and refinement of innovative approaches to implement a range of evidence-based cancer control interventions. Centers all feature "implementation laboratories" involving clinical and community sites.


Can an Aspirin a Day Prevent Colorectal Cancer in People with Lynch Syndrome?
S Bowen et al, CDC Blog, October 2, 2019 Brand (Posted: Oct-04-2019 10AM)

The new NICE draft guidance based on a groundbreaking clinical trial, in review, at the time of this blog, NICE is circulating draft language, based on clinical trials, which essentially states that an aspirin taken daily for more than two years reduces the risk of colorectal cancer among people with Lynch syndrome.


A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Multigene Testing for All Patients With Breast Cancer
L Sun et al, JAMA Oncology, October 3, 2019 (Posted: Oct-04-2019 9AM)

In this cost-effectiveness microsimulation modeling study incorporating data from 11 836 women, unselected BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2 testing at breast cancer diagnosis was extremely cost-effective compared with BRCA1/BRCA2 testing based on clinical criteria or family history for UK and US health systems.


After a Breast Cancer Diagnosis, Men May Be More Likely to Die than Women
NCI, October 2, 2019 Brand (Posted: Oct-04-2019 9AM)

Men may be more likely than women to die after being diagnosed with breast cancer, particularly during the first 5 years after diagnosis. Fewer than 1% of breast cancers diagnosed each year occur in men and many of them aree associated with BRCA mutations.


What to expect from AI in oncology.
et al. Nature reviews. Clinical oncology 2019 Oct (Posted: Oct-04-2019 9AM)

In the past few years, the terms ‘artificial intelligence’ (AI) and ‘machine learning’ (ML) have become common in the news; several important medical advances have been made using these approaches. What are AI and ML, and how can they affect the practice of medicine? In oncology, the obvious question is how will AI improve the outcomes of patients with cancer?


Mathew Knowles reveals he is battling breast cancer: 'We need men to speak out'
H FitzPatrick et al, ABC Good Morning America, October 2, 2019 (Posted: Oct-02-2019 9AM)

"My mother’s sister died of breast cancer, my mother’s sister’s two and only daughters died of breast cancer and my sister-in-law died in March of breast cancer with three kids – a 9-, 11- and a 15-year-old -- and my mother-in-law had breast cancer...The results from my BRCA test were that I had a mutation on my BRCA2."


A Value of Information Analysis of Research on the 21-Gene Assay for Breast Cancer Management.
Kunst Natalia R et al. Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research 2019 Oct 22(10) 1102-1110 (Posted: Oct-02-2019 8AM)


For women Lynch syndrome is about more than colon cancer.
Parker Wendy M et al. Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.) 2019 Sep (Posted: Oct-02-2019 8AM)

We had the chance to listen to women with LS, in their own words, discuss their health care experiences as they relate to gynecologic cancer risk and identified several important themes. They describe feeling confused about their screening and surveillance options while also being heavily reliant on their health care providers for guidance.


The Promise and the Reality of Genomics to Guide Precision Medicine in Pediatric Oncology: The Decade Ahead.
Evans William E et al. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 2019 Sep (Posted: Oct-02-2019 8AM)

Much has been written about the promise of "precision medicine", especially in oncology, where somatic mutations can influence the response of cancer cells to "targeted therapy". There have been successful examples of targeted therapy improving the outcome of some childhood cancers.


Whole-genome sequencing of triple-negative breast cancers in a population-based clinical study
J Staaf et al, September 30, 2019 (Posted: Oct-01-2019 8AM)


Clinical Outcomes in Early Breast Cancer With a High 21-Gene Recurrence Score of 26 to 100 Assigned to Adjuvant Chemotherapy Plus Endocrine Therapy- A Secondary Analysis of the TAILORx Randomized Clinical Trial
JA Sparano et al, JAMA Oncology, September 30, 2019 (Posted: Oct-01-2019 8AM)

In this secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial, among 1389 women with early breast cancer and a high score of 26 to 100 by 21-gene assay who received adjuvant chemotherapy, the estimated proportion free from distant recurrence at 5 years was 93%.


A polygenic risk score for breast cancer in U.S. Latinas and Latin-American women.
Shieh Yiwey et al. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2019 Sep (Posted: Sep-30-2019 9AM)

This a pooled case-control analysis of U.S. Latinas and Latin-American women (4,658 cases, 7,622 controls). Of 180 SNPs tested, 142 showed directionally consistent associations compared with European populations, and 39 were nominally statistically significant. The performance of the PRS did not vary substantially according to Indigenous American ancestry.


Choosing Breast Cancer Risk Models: Importance of Independent Validation
M Gail. JNCI, September 26, 2019 (Posted: Sep-30-2019 8AM)


Polygenic risk scores for breast cancer risk prediction: Lessons learned and future opportunities
JR Palmer et al, JNCI, September 25, 2019 (Posted: Sep-30-2019 8AM)


Machine learning-based prediction of response to PARP inhibition across cancer types.
KE Hill et al, MedRXIV, September 27, 2019 (Posted: Sep-30-2019 8AM)


Association of a Pathway-Specific Genetic Risk Score With Risk of Radiation-Associated Contralateral Breast Cancer
GP Watt et al, JAMA Network Open, January 27, 2019 (Posted: Sep-28-2019 8AM)

In this case-control study including 3732 women who received a diagnosis for a first invasive local or regional breast cancer when they were younger than 55 years, a genetic risk score comprising variants in a DNA repair pathway was associated with increased risk of a subsequent radiation-associated contralateral breast cancer.


Sir John Burn Delivers Seminar on Prediction and Prevention of Colorectal Cancer in Patients with Lynch Syndrome
NCI,September 26, 2019 Brand (Posted: Sep-28-2019 8AM)

He presented new insights into the mechanisms and natural history of colorectal cancer associated with Lynch Syndrome and the longitudinal trials on protective effects of aspirin. He also presented efforts to build robust, international, annotated genetic databases.


Better Genetic Testing Guidelines Needed to Identify More At-Risk Patients
Managed Care Executive, September 25, 2019 (Posted: Sep-26-2019 8AM)

A substantial proportion of patients with pathogenic variants in clinically actionable hereditary cancer genes are being missed with current genetic testing guidelines, according to a recent study.


Genome-wide association study identifies 32 novel breast cancer susceptibility loci from overall and subtype-specific analyses
H Zhang et al, BiorXIV, September 2019 (Posted: Sep-26-2019 8AM)


Appraising the causal relevance of DNA methylation for risk of lung cancer.
Battram Thomas et al. International journal of epidemiology 2019 Sep (Posted: Sep-26-2019 8AM)

DNA methylation changes in peripheral blood have recently been identified in relation to lung cancer risk. Some of these changes have been suggested to mediate part of the effect of smoking on lung cancer. However, limitations with conventional mediation analyses mean that the causal nature of these methylation changes has yet to be fully elucidated.


Relationship Between Hereditary Cancer Syndromes and Oncotype DX Recurrence Score.
Casasanta Nicole et al. Clinical breast cancer 2019 Aug (Posted: Sep-25-2019 9AM)


Inequities in multi-gene hereditary cancer testing: lower diagnostic yield and higher VUS rate in individuals who identify as Hispanic, African or Asian and Pacific Islander as compared to European.
Ndugga-Kabuye Mesaki K et al. Familial cancer 2019 Sep (Posted: Sep-25-2019 9AM)


Population prevalence of individuals meeting criteria for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer testing.
Greenberg Samantha et al. Cancer medicine 2019 Sep (Posted: Sep-25-2019 9AM)


STELO: a new tool for family physicians for the correct identification of inherited cancer syndromes.
Mariani Chiara et al. Family practice 2019 Sep (Posted: Sep-25-2019 9AM)

Hereditary cancer represents <10% of all cancers. These syndromes are relevant for public health because all the cancers typical of these syndromes affected young people and many members of the same family. The study developed a new family assessment tool: STELO designed for family physicians to identify patients could benefit from Cancer Genetic Counseling.


'Revolutionary' new class of cancer drugs approved
J Gallagher, BBC News, September 23, 2019 (Posted: Sep-24-2019 9AM)

A "revolutionary" new class of cancer drug that can treat a wide range of tumours has been approved for use in Europe for the first time. Tumor-agnostic drugs do not care where the cancer is growing in the body as long as it has a specific genetic abnormality inside.


Is Everyone Doing Chemo Without Me?
J Wana, NY Times, September 24, 2019 (Posted: Sep-24-2019 9AM)

On the dilemma of gene expression testing in breast cancer treatment: “You have a low score of 16 and won’t need chemo. I wanted to relish being spared the toxicity of chemo, but if it could help me potentially live longer, shouldn’t I do it anyway?"


Context is everything: aneuploidy in cancer
UB David, Nat Rev Genetics, September 23, 2019 (Posted: Sep-24-2019 9AM)


Clinical Molecular Marker Testing Data Capture to Promote Precision Medicine Research Within the Cancer Research Network
AN Burnett-Hartmann et al, JCO Clin Cancer Informatics, September 2019 (Posted: Sep-22-2019 0PM)

Even in health care systems with sophisticated electronic health records, there were few codified data elements available for evaluating precision cancer medicine test use and results at the population level. Health care organizations should establish standards for electronic reporting of precision medicine tests.


Association of Tumor Protein p53 and Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated Comutation With Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Mortality in Patients With Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer
Y Chen et al, JAMA Network Open, September 20, 2019 (Posted: Sep-22-2019 0PM)

In this multiple-cohort study, TP53 and ATM comutation sites were scattered throughout the genes analyzed. Comutation in TP53 and ATM was associated with a higher tumor mutation burden and better overall survival compared with sole mutations and no mutation.


Cancer: more genetic BRCA testing for men
M Marabelli et al, Nature, September 17, 2019 (Posted: Sep-20-2019 8AM)

The most recent guidelines from the US National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommend BRCA testing for men with metastatic or advanced prostate cancer and a family history of the disease. Broader genetic data on males will improve patient diagnosis and management, and increase treatment and clinical-trial options.


Overall Mortality After Diagnosis of Breast Cancer in Men vs Women.
Wang Fei et al. JAMA oncology 2019 Sep (Posted: Sep-20-2019 8AM)

In this large study of breast cancer in the US, male patients had higher mortality compared to female patients. This disparity persisted after accounting for clinical characteristics, treatment factors, and access to care.


Should You Get Genetic Testing for Cancer Risk?
American Cancer Society, September 18, 2019 (Posted: Sep-19-2019 9AM)

5% to 10% of all cancers are related to gene mutations that are passed down through the family. Having an inherited mutation does not mean you will get cancer. It means you are at a higher risk for developing a cancer. Most people do not need this type of genetic testing. It’s usually recommended when cancer runs in a family and a gene mutation is suspected.


Randomised trial of population-based BRCA testing in Ashkenazi Jews: long-term outcomes.
Manchanda R et al. BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 2019 Sep (Posted: Sep-18-2019 9AM)

Unselected population-based BRCA testing provides the opportunity to apply genomics on a population-scale to maximize primary prevention for breast-and-ovarian cancer. The study compared long-term outcomes of Ashkenazi jewish population-based and family-history (FH)/clinical-criteria-based BRCA testing on psychological health and quality of life


Scientists call for population-wide BRCA testing for higher risk group
B Warman, Cancer Research UK, September 13, 2019 (Posted: Sep-18-2019 9AM)


Cancer Patients Have Limited Understanding of Genomic Test Results
Health Analytics, September 2019 (Posted: Sep-18-2019 9AM)

A majority of patients with cancer don’t understand critical features of the genomic test results they receive when participating in clinical trials, according to a pilot study conducted under the Lung Cancer Master Protocol (Lung-MAP), the first lung cancer precision medicine trial supported by the National Cancer Institute (NCI).


Men at High Risk for Breast Cancer May Benefit From Screening
R Nelson, Medscape, September 17, 2019 (Posted: Sep-18-2019 9AM)


What do cancer patients’ relatives think about addressing cancer family history and performing genetic testing in palliative care?
JE Cleophat et al, Eur J Hum Geneti, September 16, 2019 (Posted: Sep-17-2019 7AM)

Cancer occurrence within families raises concerns among relatives about cancer heritability, but the palliative care period is not considered the most appropriate moment to address this issue. However, discussions about the risk to cancer patients’ relatives might need to be considered on a case-by-case basis.


Learn Your Family History of Breast and Ovarian Cancer
CDC, 2019 Brand (Posted: Sep-16-2019 8AM)

Learning your family history of cancer, from both your mother’s and father’s sides, can help you know if you have a higher risk for getting breast or ovarian cancer at a young age.Asking your relatives about their cancer histories can be hard. Here are some tips for talking with your family about this topic.


Superior skin cancer classification by the combination of human and artificial intelligence.
Hekler Achim et al. European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) 2019 Sep 114-121 (Posted: Sep-15-2019 8AM)

Using 11,444 dermoscopic images, which were divided into five diagnostic categories, novel deep learning techniques were used to train a single network. Then, both 112 dermatologists of 13 German university hospitals and the trained neural convolutional network independently classified a set of 300 biopsy-verified skin lesions into those five classes.


Why Aren’t Cancer Drugs Better? The Targets Might Be Wrong
C Zimmer, NY Times, September 13, 2019 (Posted: Sep-14-2019 8AM)

Drugs can stop cancer cells if they attack the right proteins. But many of these targets were chosen with dated, imprecise technology, a new study suggests. "There clearly exists a legacy of RNAi-guided bad targets that needs to be purged from the drug development pipeline."


Many cancer drugs aim at the wrong molecular targets- Analysis using CRISPR gene-editing technology suggests that drugs’ mechanism of action are misunderstood.
H Ledford, Nature, September 12, 2019 (Posted: Sep-13-2019 10AM)


Association of Prior Antibiotic Treatment With Survival and Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in Patients With Cancer
DJ Pinato et al, JAMA Oncology, September 12, 2019 (Posted: Sep-13-2019 10AM)


HER2 and Breast Cancer - A Phenomenal Success Story.
Hayes Daniel F et al. The New England journal of medicine 2019 Sep (Posted: Sep-12-2019 7AM)

Breast cancer mortality has declined by nearly half, thanks to a combination of screening and early therapy as well as more treatments that are effective with fewer side effects, especially in the adjuvant setting. Work on the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in breast cancer launched a new era in clinical research and the practice of oncology.


CRISPR-Edited Stem Cells in a Patient with HIV and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia.
Xu Lei et al. The New England journal of medicine 2019 Sep (Posted: Sep-12-2019 7AM)


How Immunotherapy Might Be Used to Treat Heart Failure- Modified immune cells may be trained not just to attack cancer, but any cells in the body that cause disease
G Kolata, NY Times, September 11, 2019 (Posted: Sep-12-2019 7AM)


Noninvasive Detection of Microsatellite Instability and High Tumor Mutation Burden in Cancer Patients Treated with PD-1 Blockade.
Georgiadis Andrew et al. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2019 Sep (Posted: Sep-12-2019 7AM)


Men, It’s Time for Real Talk about Prostate Health
DM Parker, CDC Blog, August 2019 Brand (Posted: Sep-11-2019 0PM)

Research by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), a group of health care experts, shows that men aged 55 to 69 benefit most from screening. Specifically, the USPSTF lists African American men and men with a family history of prostate cancer as higher risk groups.


Family Members at Higher Risk for Blood Cancers
P Harrison, Medscape, September 9, 2019 (Posted: Sep-11-2019 9AM)

Individuals who have a first-degree relative with blood cancer have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with the disease, and this risk is higher for that of some solid tumors. A new study is the largest and most comprehensive to date, found a familial link in 4.1% of all blood cancer diagnoses.


Predicting pancreatic cancer survival via the tumor microbiome
H Stover, Nature Medicine, Sepetmber 9, 2019 (Posted: Sep-10-2019 9AM)


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Disclaimer: Articles listed in Hot Topics of the Day are selected by the CDC Office of Public Health Genomics to provide current awareness of the scientific literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.
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