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Hot Topics of the Day|PHGKB
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08/05/2022

Hot Topics of the Day are picked by experts to capture the latest information and publications on public health genomics and precision health for various diseases and health topics. Sources include published scientific literature, reviews, blogs and popular press articles.

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Examination of SARS-CoV-2 In-Class Transmission at a Large Urban University With Public Health Mandates Using Epidemiological and Genomic Methodology
K Kuehfeldt et al, JAMA Network Open, August 5, 2022

In this cohort study of 140?000 class meetings at a large US university, there were over 850 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection identified through weekly surveillance testing of all students and faculty on campus during the fall 2021 semester. There were 9 instances of potential in-class transmission identified as identical lineages confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing, and none of these instances were confirmed to be in-class transmission. These results suggest that in-class transmission of SAR-CoV-2 in an urban university with masking and vaccine protocols in-place was negligible.

One Health Genomic Surveillance and Response to a University-Based Outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta AY.25 Lineage, Arizona, 2021
H Yaglom et al, MEDRXIV, August 4, 2022

Large scale outbreaks of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant have occurred in numerous settings, including universities. An outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta AY.25 lineage associated with a university campus with multiple transmission events was identified; genomic analyses characterized this outbreak and complemented contract tracing and wastewater surveillance strategies that strengthened overall public health response actions.

Viral Kinetics of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron Infection in mRNA-Vaccinated Individuals Treated and Not Treated with Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir
EY Dai et al, MERDRXIV, August 4, 2022

SARS-CoV-2 BA.4/5 Spike recognition and neutralization elicited after the third dose of mRNA vaccine
A Tauzin et al, MEDRXIV, August 4, 2022

Association of Genetic Variant Linked to Hemochromatosis With Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures of Iron and Movement Disorders.
Loughnan Robert et al. JAMA neurology 2022 8

In this cross-sectional study that included 836 participants, we found that individuals at high genetic risk for developing hemochromatosis had magnetic resonance imaging scans indicating substantial iron deposition localized to motor circuits of the brain. Further analysis of data for 488?288 individuals revealed that male individuals with high genetic risk for hemochromatosis (but not female individuals) were at 1.80-fold increased risk for developing a movement disorder, with the majority of these individuals not having a concurrent diagnosis for hemochromatosis.

Exploring Links Between Psychosis and Frontotemporal Dementia Using Multimodal Machine Learning: Dementia Praecox Revisited.
Koutsouleris Nikolaos et al. JAMA psychiatry 2022 8

In this diagnostic/prognostic study including 1870 patients, patients with schizophrenia expressed the neuroanatomical pattern of behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia more strongly (41%) than that of Alzheimer disease (17%), and at lower levels, this difference was also encountered in those with major depression (22% vs 3%). Already in clinical high-risk states for psychosis the high expression of the behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia pattern was linked to severe phenotypes, unfavorable courses, and elevated polygenic risks for schizophrenia and dementia, with further pattern progression being present in those patients who did not recover over time.

Joint Genetic Inhibition of PCSK9 and CETP and the Association With Coronary Artery Disease: A Factorial Mendelian Randomization Study.
Cupido Arjen J et al. JAMA cardiology 2022 8

In this cohort study, a 2?×?2 factorial Mendelian randomization study including 425?354 participants from the UK Biobank, an additive association of a genetically reduced combined concentration of CETP and PCSK9 was found for lipid levels and risk of coronary artery disease, while the association of CETP with age-related macular degeneration was not mitigated. Our findings suggest that joint inhibition of CETP and PCSK9 has additive effects on lipid concentrations and clinical outcomes.

Differences in the genetic architecture of common and rare variants in childhood, persistent and late-diagnosed attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Rajagopal Veera M et al. Nature genetics 2022 8

We evaluated genetic differences among childhood (n?=?14,878), persistent (n?=?1,473) and late-diagnosed (n?=?6,961) ADHD cases alongside 38,303 controls, and rare variant differences in 7,650 ADHD cases and 8,649 controls. We identified four genome-wide significant loci for childhood ADHD and one for late-diagnosed ADHD. We found increased polygenic scores for ADHD in persistent ADHD compared with the other two groups. Childhood ADHD had higher genetic overlap with hyperactivity and autism compared with late-diagnosed ADHD.

Molecular map of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and its impact on outcome.
Knisbacher Binyamin A et al. Nature genetics 2022 8

We integrated genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic data from 1,148 patients. We identified 202 candidate genetic drivers of CLL (109 new) and refined the characterization of IGHV subtypes, which revealed distinct genomic landscapes and leukemogenic trajectories. Discovery of new gene expression subtypes further subcategorized this neoplasm and proved to be independent prognostic factors. Clinical outcomes were associated with a combination of genetic, epigenetic and gene expression features.


Disclaimer: Articles listed in Hot Topics of the Day are selected by the CDC Office of Public Health Genomics to provide current awareness of the scientific literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.
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