Hot Topics of the Day are picked by experts to capture the latest information and publications on public health genomics and precision health for various diseases and health topics. Sources include published scientific literature, reviews, blogs and popular press articles.
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Animal Reservoirs—Where the Next SARS-CoV-2 Variant Could Arise
J Madhusoodanan, JAMA, August 3, 2022
As the virus jumps across species barriers, it also adapts to a range of different hosts, stockpiling mutations that can change its behavior, transmissibility, or ability to evade vaccines and immune defenses in as-yet-unknown ways. “What we might fear is a situation where, when things seem like they’re under control, we have a new variant that spreads fast, looks really different, and we don’t know where it came from.
Disparities in distribution of COVID-19 vaccines across US counties: A geographic information system-based cross-sectional study.
Hernandez Inmaculada et al. PLoS medicine 2022 7 (7) e1004069
Equity in the distribution of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is of major relevance. It is unknown whether there were differences in the distribution of COVID-19 vaccines to healthcare facilities depending on the demographic composition of the population. What did the researchers do and find?
We tested whether healthcare facilities serving minority or disadvantaged neighborhoods were less likely to administer COVID-19 vaccines in the early phase of the COVID-19 vaccine rollout process. We found that healthcare facilities in counties with higher Black composition, in rural areas, and in hardest-hit communities were less likely to administer COVID-19 vaccines in May 2021.
Cellular and humoral immunity towards parental SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern after two doses of the NVX-CoV2373-vaccine in comparison to homologous BNT162b and mRNA1273 regimens
F Hielscher et al, MEDRXIV, August 3, 2022
Longitudinal analyses after COVID-19 recovery or prolonged infection reveal unique immunological signatures after repeated vaccinations
D Hismatsu et al, MEDRXIV, August 3, 2022
Estimating diagnostic noise in panel-based genomic analysis.
Beaumont Robin N et al. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 2022 8
Although large gene panels may be the best strategy to maximize diagnostic yield in genetically heterogeneous diseases, they frequently prioritize likely benign variants requiring follow up. Most individuals have =1 rare nonsynonymous variant in panels containing >500 disease genes. Extreme caution should be applied when interpreting candidate variants, particularly in the absence of relevant phenotypes.
Improving access to genetic services for underserved populations: Amish, Mennonite, and other Plain communities
A Kantipuly et al, CDC Blog Post, August 3, 2022
Lack of access to genetic services in rural areas could contribute to disparities in quality of care, but tailored approaches can overcome some barriers and improve care. Here we present the example of the Midwest Genetics Network (MGN) outreach with the Plain communities.
Clinical use of artificial intelligence in endometriosis: a scoping review
B Sivajohan et al, NPJ Digital Medicine, August 4, 2022
Endometriosis is a chronic, debilitating, gynecologic condition with a non-specific clinical presentation. Globally, patients can experience diagnostic delays of ~6 to 12 years, which significantly hinders adequate management and places a significant financial burden on patients and the healthcare system. Through artificial intelligence (AI), it is possible to create models that can extract data patterns to act as inputs for developing interventions with predictive and diagnostic accuracies that are superior to conventional methods and current tools used in standards of care.
Monoclonal antibodies for malaria prevention.
Aleshnick Maya et al. Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 2022 4 (5) 1810-1821
Despite several approaches to prevent established infection, no single approach offers complete protection, so a multilayered approach is needed. One potential layer, the monoclonal antibody. opens in new tab, is the focus of a new trial. The authors describe protection conferred by a long-acting, next-generation monoclonal antibody against controlled human malaria infection in healthy persons.