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Hot Topics of the Day|PHGKB
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Hot Topics of the Day are picked by experts to capture the latest information and publications on public health genomics and precision health for various diseases and health topics. Sources include published scientific literature, reviews, blogs and popular press articles.

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Archived Hot Topics of the Day By Date

Decoding Artificial Intelligence to Achieve Diagnostic Excellence Learning From Experts, Examples, and Experience
JH Chen et al, JAMA, August 1, 2022

Clinical decision support systems that use artificial intelligence (AI) to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and safety have long been aspirational goals for computer scientists and clinicians. Yet diagnostic AI development has seen multiple cycles of inflated peaks of expectations followed by troughs of disillusionment. Clinicians are understandably wary of embracing new diagnostic AI solutions without understanding how they work and relate to their existing practice.

Development of Resistance-Associated Mutations After Sotrovimab Administration in High-risk Individuals Infected With the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant
E Birnie et al, JAMA, August 1, 2022

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant of concern is currently the dominant variant circulating globally. Sotrovimab is among the few monoclonal antibodies that has retained its neutralizing activity against Omicron/BA.1 and received Emergency Use Authorization for treatment of patients at risk for progression to severe disease. This study found rapid development of sotrovimab resistance–associated mutations at positions S:E340 and S:P337 in a large proportion of high-risk patients infected with the Omicron variant after treatment with sotrovimab, which was associated with a delay in viral clearance.

Update Alert 8: Masks for Prevention of Respiratory Virus Infections, Including SARS-CoV-2, in Health Care and Community Settings.
Chou Roger et al. Annals of internal medicine 2022 7

Host genomics beyond the pandemic
PHG Foundation, July 2022

There is no denying the impact of the pandemic and the resourcefulness of researchers who have taken the opportunity to use a wide range of approaches to untangle the complex biology of COVID-19. Host genomics has been a central player in this effort. Humans differ in their individual response to an infectious disease with evidence that genetics explains some of this difference. Insights from studying host genomics can lead to new tools and interventions to improve care of patients with infectious diseases.

Bioadhesive ultrasound for long-term continuous imaging of diverse organs.
Wang Chonghe et al. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2022 7 (6605) 517-523

Ultrasound is widely used for the noninvasive imaging of tissues and organs, but this method requires close contact between the transducer and the target area. This can make it difficult to acquire images over a long period of time, especially if the patient needs to be mobile. A new study describes a wearable ultrasound imaging device. A rigid piezoelectric probe array is bonded to the skin with an acoustically transparent hydrogel elastomer. In vivo testing showed that the device could be comfortably worn for 48 hours, and hooking the array up to a commercially available ultrasound platform allowed for continuous ultrasound images of the carotid artery, lung, and abdomen.

Cross-ancestry genome-wide meta-analysis of 61,047 cases and 947,237 controls identifies new susceptibility loci contributing to lung cancer
J Byun et al, Nature Genetics, August 1, 2022

To identify new susceptibility loci to lung cancer among diverse populations, we performed cross-ancestry genome-wide association studies in European, East Asian and African populations and discovered five loci that have not been previously reported. We replicated 26 signals and identified 10 new lead associations from previously reported loci. Rare-variant associations tended to be specific to populations, but even common-variant associations influencing smoking behavior, such as those with CHRNA5 and CYP2A6, showed population specificity.

Disclaimer: Articles listed in Hot Topics of the Day are selected by the CDC Office of Genomics and Precision Public Health to provide current awareness of the scientific literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.