SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination elicits robust antibody responses in children
YC Bartisch et al, Science, July 26, 2022
Here we aimed to deeply profile the vaccine-induced humoral immune response in 6 to 11 year old children receiving either a pediatric (50 µg) or adult (100 µg) dose of the mRNA-1273 vaccine and to compare these responses to vaccinated adults, infected children, and children that experienced multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Children elicited an IgG-dominant vaccine-induced immune response, surpassing adults at a matched 100 µg dose, but more variable immunity at a 50 µg dose.
The molecular epidemiology of multiple zoonotic origins of SARS-CoV-2
JE Pekar et al, Science, July 26, 2022
We show that SARS-CoV-2 genomic diversity before February 2020 likely comprised only two distinct viral lineages, denoted A and B. Phylodynamic rooting methods, coupled with epidemic simulations, reveal that these lineages were the result of at least two separate cross-species transmission events into humans. The first zoonotic transmission likely involved lineage B viruses around 18 November 2019 (23 October–8 December), while the separate introduction of lineage A likely occurred within weeks of this event. These findings indicate that it is unlikely that SARS-CoV-2 circulated widely in humans prior to November 2019 and define the narrow window between when SARS-CoV-2 first jumped into humans and when the first cases of COVID-19 were reported.
The Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan was the early epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic
M Worobey et al, Science, July 26, 2022
We show the earliest known COVID-19 cases from December 2019, including those without reported direct links, were geographically centered on this market. We report that live SARS-CoV-2 susceptible mammals were sold at the market in late 2019 and, within the market, SARS-CoV-2-positive environmental samples were spatially associated with vendors selling live mammals. While there is insufficient evidence to define upstream events, and exact circumstances remain obscure, our analyses indicate that the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 occurred via the live wildlife trade in China, and show that the Huanan market was the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic.
How long is COVID infectious? What scientists know so far
D Adam, Nature, July 26, 2022
Those with SARS-CoV-2 are often advised to isolate for only a few days. But evidence is mounting that some people can continue to pass on the virus for much longer. Something most scientists are confident about is that PCR tests can return a positive result even after someone is no longer infectious. This probably occurs when the tests, which detect viral RNA, pick up non-infectious remnants left behind after most of the live virus has been eliminated. By contrast, lateral flow (or ‘rapid antigen’) tests offer a better guide to infectiousness, because they detect proteins produced by actively replicating virus.
Genomic epidemiology and phylodynamics for county-to-county transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Minnesota, from 19A to Omicron
M Scotch et al, MEDRXIV, July 25, 2022
We sequenced virus genomes from over 22,000 patients tested at Mayo Clinic Laboratories between 2020-2022 and leveraged detailed patient metadata to describe county-to-county spread in Minnesota. Our findings indicate that spread in the state was mostly dominated by viruses from Hennepin County, which contains the largest metropolis. For many counties, we found that state government restrictions eventually led to a decrease in the diversity of circulating viruses from other counties and that their complete removal in May of 2021 saw a drastic revert to levels at or greater than those observed during the months before.
Beta-Thalassemia minor and SARS-CoV-2, prevalence, severity, morbidity and mortality: a systematic review study
E Lansiaux et al, MEDRXIV< July 25, 2022
Impact of a Population Genomic Screening Program on Health Behaviors Related to Familial Hypercholesterolemia Risk Reduction.
Jones Laney K et al. Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine 2022 101161CIRCGEN121003549
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of MyCode participants with an FH risk variant beginning 2 years before disclosure until January 16, 2019. We analyzed lipid-lowering prescriptions (clinician behavior), medication adherence (participant behavior), and LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels (health outcome impact) pre- and post-disclosure. Data were collected from electronic health records and claims. Despite disclosure of an FH risk variant, nonprescribing and nonadherence to lipid-lowering therapy remained high. However, when clinicians intensified medication regimens and participants adhered to medications, lipid levels decreased.
An automated 13.5 hour system for scalable diagnosis and acute management guidance for genetic diseases
MJ Owen et al, Nat Comm, July 26, 2022
While many genetic diseases have effective treatments, they frequently progress rapidly to severe morbidity or mortality if those treatments are not implemented immediately. Since front-line physicians frequently lack familiarity with these diseases, timely molecular diagnosis may not improve outcomes. Herein we describe Genome-to-Treatment, an automated, virtual system for genetic disease diagnosis and acute management guidance. Diagnosis is achieved in 13.5?h by expedited whole genome sequencing, with superior analytic performance for structural and copy number variants
Shared mechanisms across the major psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases
TS Wingo et al, Nat Comm, July 26, 2022
Using 25 GWAS results and LD score regression, we find eight significant genetic correlations between psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. We integrate the GWAS results with human brain transcriptomes (n?=?888) and proteomes (n?=?722) to identify cis- and trans- transcripts and proteins that are consistent with a pleiotropic or causal role in each disease, referred to as causal proteins for brevity. Within each disease group, we find many distinct and shared causal proteins. Remarkably, 30% (13 of 42) of the neurodegenerative disease causal proteins are shared with psychiatric disorders.