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May 24, 2022

Last Posted: May-24-2022 08:21:43

Systematic evidence-based review: The application of noninvasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA in general-risk pregnancies
NC Rose et al, Genetics in Medicine, May 23, 2022

A total of 87 studies met inclusion criteria. Diagnostic odds ratios were significant (P < .0001) for T21, T18, and T13 for singleton and twin pregnancies. NIPS was accurate (=99.78%) in detecting sex chromosome aneuploidies. Performance for rare autosomal trisomies and copy number variants was variable. Use of NIPS reduced diagnostic tests by 31% to 79%. Conclusions regarding psychosocial outcomes could not be drawn owing to lack of data. Identification of maternal conditions was rare. NIPS is a highly accurate screening method for T21, T18, and T13 in both singleton and twin pregnancies.

Gut microbiota predicts body fat change following a low-energy diet: a PREVIEW intervention study
C Jian et al, Genome Medicine, May 23, 2022

Low-energy diets (LEDs) comprise commercially formulated food products that provide between 800 and 1200 kcal/day (3.3–5 MJ/day) to aid body weight loss. Recent small-scale studies suggest that LEDs are associated with marked changes in the gut microbiota that may modify the effect of the LED on host metabolism and weight loss. We investigated how the gut microbiota changed during 8 weeks of total meal replacement LED and determined their associations with host response.

The first complete human genome
JT Lovell et al, Nature, May 23, 2022

Sequences of the human genome have typically included gaps in repetitive regions of DNA. A combination of state-of-the-art technologies has now enabled researchers to generate the first complete human genome sequence.

Artificial intelligence is breaking patent law
A George et al, Nature, May 24, 2022

Patent law is based on the assumption that inventors are human; it currently struggles to deal with an inventor that is a machine. Courts around the world are wrestling with this problem now as patent applications naming an AI system as the inventor have been lodged in more than 100 countries. Several groups are conducting public consultations on AI and intellectual property (IP) law, including in the United States, United Kingdom and Europe.

Low testing rates limit the ability of genomic surveillance programs to monitor SARS-CoV-2 variants: a mathematical modelling study
AX Han et al, MEDRXIV, May 23, 2022

Predictors of COVID-19 vaccine uptake: An online longitudinal study of US Veterans and non-Veterans
A Thorpe et al, MEDRXIV, May 23, 2022

The proportion of respondents who received =1–dose of a COVID–19 vaccine increased from 18% in January to 67% in March. Older age predicted vaccine uptake in January (OR=2.02[95%CI=1.14–3.78], p<.001) and March (10.92[6.76–18.05], p<.001). In January, additional predictors of vaccine uptake were higher numeracy (1.48[1.20–1.86], p<.001), COVID–19 risk perceptions (1.35[1.03–1.78], p=.029), and believing it is important that adults get the COVID–19 vaccine (1.66[1.05–2.66], p=.033). In March, additional predictors of vaccine uptake were believing it is important that adults get the COVID–19 vaccine (1.63[1.15–2.34], p=.006), previous (January) COVID–19 vaccine intentions (1.37[1.10–1.72], p=.006), and belief in science (0.84[0.72–0.99], p=.041). Concerns about side effects and the vaccine development process were the most common reasons for non–vaccination.

Safety of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine in Children below 5 Years in Germany (CoVacU5): An Investigator-initiated Retrospective Cohort Study
N Toepfner et al, MEDRXIV, May 23, 2022

Variant-specific symptoms of COVID-19 among 1,542,510 people in England
M Whitaker et al, MEDRXIV, May 23, 2022

We show changing symptom profiles associated with the different variants over that period, with lower reporting of loss of sense of smell and taste for Omicron compared to previous variants, and higher reporting of cold-like and influenza-like symptoms, controlling for vaccination status. Contrary to the perception that recent variants have become successively milder, Omicron BA.2 was associated with reporting more symptoms, with greater disruption to daily activities, than BA.1.

Hot Topics of the Day are picked by experts to capture the latest information and publications on public health genomics and precision health for various diseases and health topics. Sources include published scientific literature, reviews, blogs and popular press articles.

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Disclaimer: Articles listed in Hot Topics of the Day are selected by the CDC Office of Public Health Genomics to provide current awareness of the scientific literature and news. Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.